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Skin Cancer : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What is Skin Cancer?

Sun cancer — the abnormal growth of skin cells that occurs because of exposure to the sun — most often develops on skin that is exposed to the sun. But this common form of cancer can also occur on areas of your skin that are not ordinarily exposed to sunlight.

Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma are the three most common types of skin cancer.

What is Skin Cancer?
Skin Cancer

Avoiding exposure to UV radiation can help reduce your risk of skin cancer. Checking your skin for changes can help you detect skin cancer at its earliest stage. If you notice any suspicious changes, see a doctor as early as possible for treatment. Early detection gives you the best chance for successful treatment.

  1. Integumentary system

  1. Mammary glands

  2. Skin

  3. Subcutaneous tissue

Medical terms

  • Skin cancer is the out-of-control growth of abnormal cells within the epidermis, the outer skin layer, caused by unrepaired polymer injury that triggers mutations. These mutations lead the skin cells to multiply chop-chop Associate in Nursing and malignant tumors. The most common types of skin cancer are basal cell cancer (BCC), epithelial cell carcinoma (SCC), malignant melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).

  • carcinoma happens once skin cells grow and multiply in an uncontrolled, unorderly way.

  • Normally, new skin cells form when cells age and die or once they become damaged. Once this method doesn’t work because it should, an ascension of cells (some of which can be abnormal cells) results. This assortment of cells could also be noncancerous (benign), that don’t unfold or cause harm, or cancerous, which may spread to nearby tissue or alternative areas in your body if not caught early and treated.

Carcinoma is usually caused by ultraviolet (UV) light-weight exposure from the sun.

  • the most common form of cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States The three most common types are basal cell carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma Melanoma accounts for less than 2 percent of skin cancers but causes 75 percent of deaths due to skin cancer Basal and squamous cell account for 90 percent of all cases while melanomas make up less than 10 percent but almost all fatalities linked to this type of cancer.

There are 3 main styles of skin cancer:

Types Skin cancer

Basal cell cancer and epithelial cell carcinoma are the foremost common types of skin cancer and are sometimes known as “non-melanoma carcinoma.”

malignant melanoma isn't as common as basal cell or epithelial cell carcinomas however is the most dangerous kind of skin cancer. If left untreated or caught during a late-stage, melanomas are a lot of possible to unfold to organs on the far side of the skin, creating them troublesome to treat and probably life-limiting.

Fortunately, if skin cancer is known and treated early, most are cured. This is often why it's vital to require a couple of safeguards and to speak along with your health care supplier if you think that you've got any signs of skin cancer.

Symptoms Skin cancer

Watch out for signs of skin cancer, including:

  • Skin lesions. A new mole, uncommon growth, bump, sore, scaly patch, or dark spot develops and doesn’t disappear.

  • Asymmetry. The two halves of a lesion or mole aren’t identical.

  • Border. Lesions have ragged, uneven edges.

  • Color. A spot has an uncommon color, like white, pink, black, blue, or red. It might even have quite one color at intervals a lesion.

  • Diameter. The size is larger than 1/4 inch or about the size of a pencil eraser.

  • Evolving. You can find that the mole changes in any way, equivalent to the size, shape, color, or symptoms like itching, pain, or bleeding.

Where skin cancer develops

Skin cancer is most commonly found on areas of the skin that are exposed to the sun, including the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms, and hands. It can also form on areas that rarely see the light of day - like your palms and fingernails, or your genital area.

Skin cancer can affect people of all skin colors, including those with darker complexions. When melanoma occurs in people with dark skin tones, it tends to occur in areas that are not normally exposed to the sun, such as the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

Basal cell carcinoma signs and symptoms

Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs in areas of your body that are exposed to the sun, such as your neck or face.

Basal cell carcinoma may appear as:

  • A pearly or waxy bump

  • A lesion that is flat and flesh-colored, or a brown scar.

  • A sore that heals and returns is bleeding or scabbing.

Some signs and symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma are: -A change in the appearance of the skin, such as an increase in size or number of spots, or a change in the color of the skin -A new lump or swelling that does not go away -Pain when pressing on the skin

Squamous cell carcinoma most often occurs on sun-exposed areas of your body, such as your face, ears, and hands. People with darker skin are more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma in areas that are not often exposed to the sun.

Squamous cell carcinoma may appear as:

  • A firm, red nodule

  • A lesion that is flat and covered in a thick scaly crust.

Melanoma signs and symptoms

Melanoma can affect people of any skin color. In people with darker skin, melanoma is more likely to occur on the palms or soles or under the fingernails or toenails.

Melanoma signs include:

  • There is a brownish spot on the leaf with darker speckles.

  • A mole that changes color, size, or feel; or one that bleeds.

  • A lesion with an irregular border and areas that appear red, pink, white, blue, or black.

  • A painful lesion that itches or burns

  • If you have dark lesions on your palms, soles of your feet, fingertips, or inside your mouth, nose, vagina, or anus, it means you have a virus.

Some skin cancers have different signs and symptoms than other types of skin cancer.

There are other types of skin cancer that are less common than melanoma. These other types of cancer include basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

  • Kaposi sarcoma.This skin cancer develops in the blood vessels and results in red or purple patches on the skin or mucous membranes.
    Kaposi sarcoma mostly occurs in people who have weakened immune systems, such as people with AIDS and those taking medications that suppress their natural immunity, such as after having a surgery or receiving an organ transplant.
    Those who are at an increased risk for Kaposi sarcoma include young men from Africa or older men of Italian or Eastern European Jewish heritage.

  • Merkel cell carcinoma.Merkel cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that causes firm, shiny nodules on or near the skin. It can also be found in hair follicles.

  • Sebaceous gland carcinoma.This cancer originates in the oil glands on the skin. Sebaceous gland carcinomas (which are usually small, painless nodules), can develop anywhere but most often occur on the eyelid where they are frequently mistaken for other eyelid problems.

When to see a doctor

If you notice any changes to your skin that make you worried, make an appointment with your doctor. Not all changes to the skin are caused by cancer. Your doctor will look for a cause for your concerns.

Causes Skin cancer

The two main causes of willcer|carcinoma} are the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays and also the use of ultraviolet radiation tanning beds. The great news is that if skin cancer is caught early, your skin doctor can treat it with very little or no scarring and high odds of eliminating it entirely. Often, the doctor could even sight the expansion at a malignant tumor stage, before it's become a full-blown skin cancer or penetrated below the surface of the skin.

Skin cancer occurs when errors occur in the DNA of skin cells. These errors cause the cells to grow out of control and form a mass of cancer cells.

Cells involved in skin cancer

Skin cancer begins with the top layer of your skin — the epidermis. The epidermis is a thin layer that provides a protective cover for your skin cells that are constantly shed. The epidermis contains three main types of cells: skin cells, hair cells, and nerve cells.

  • Olive leaves have a thin, outer skin that functions as the inner lining of the leaf.

  • Basal cells,Decoupage leaves produce new skin cells that are underneath the squamous cells.

  • MelanocytesBeneath the surface of your skin, where melanocytes produce the pigment that gives skin its normal color, are located. When you're in the sun, these cells produce more melanin to protect the deeper layers of your skin.

The type of skin cancer you have depends on where it begins on your body.

UV light and other potential causes of browning

Sunlight is one factor that can damage DNA in skin cells. But skin cancer can develop on skin that doesn't ordinarily receive sunlight. This suggests that other factors also play a role in skin cancer development. If you are at risk for skin cancer, such as from exposure to harmful substances or having a weakened immune system, your risk increases.

Risk factors Skin cancer

Some factors that may increase your risk of skin cancer include:

  • Fair skin.Skin cancer can happen to anyone, regardless of their skin color. However, people with less melanin present in their skin are more likely to be affected by the damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. If you have blond or red hair and eyes that are light in color, and you often sunburn easily, you are at a greater risk for developing skin cancer. People with darker skin are considered people.

  • A history of sunburns.Being sunburned as a child or teenager increases your risk of developing skin cancer in adulthood. Sunburns in adulthood are also a risk factor.

  • Excessive sun exposure.If you spend a lot of time in the sun, you may develop skin cancer. This includes not wearing sunscreen or clothing, and tanning by using tanning lamps or lying in a tanning bed. Tans are the body's injury response to too much UV radiation.

  • Sunny or high-altitude climates.People who live in sunny climates are more likely to be exposed to sunlight than people who live in colder climates. Higher altitudes increase exposure to sunlight, and living near a radiation source (a nuclear power plant, for example) also increases exposure.

  • Moles. People who have a lot of moles or abnormal moles are at a higher risk of skin cancer. These unusual moles - which look bumpy and often larger than average - are more likely than others to develop into cancer. If you've had a lot of moles in the past Be on the lookout for changes.

  • Precancerous skin lesions. If you have actinic keratoses, that is, skin lesions known to increase your risk of developing skin cancer, you may be at an increased risk. These growths typically appear as rough, scaly patches that can range in color from brown to dark pink. They are most common on the face, head, and hands of people with fair skin. Sun-damaged items are not as pretty as unpunished items.

  • A family history of skin cancer.If one of your parents or a sibling has had skin cancer, you may be at an increased risk for the disease.

  • A personal history of skin cancer.If you have skin cancer once, you are at risk of developing it again.

  • A weakened immune system.People with weakened immune systems are more likely to develop skin cancer. This includes people living with HIV/AIDS and those taking immunosuppressive drugs after an organ transplant.

  • Exposure to radiation.People who have received radiation therapy for skin conditions such as eczema and acne may be at a higher risk of developing skin cancer, particularly basal cell carcinoma.

  • Exposure to certain substances.If you are exposed to certain substances, such as arsenic, your risk of developing skin cancer increases.

Prevention Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is usually preventable. To protect yourself, follow these skin cancer prevention tips:

  • Do not sunbathe during the middle of the day.The sun's rays are strongest during the morning and afternoon in North America. You can enjoy outdoor activities during other times of the day, even in winter or when it is cloudy.
    You're exposed to UV radiation year-round, and clouds offer little protection from the damaging rays. Avoiding the sun at its strongest helps you avoid sunburns, tanning beds, and skin cancer. Sun exposure that accumulated over time may also cause skin cancer.

  • Wear sunscreen year-round.Sunscreens do not filter out all harmful UV radiation. In fact, some of it can be dangerous if it enters your skin. However, they are an important part of an overall sun protection program.
    Apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 even on cloudy days.Apply sunscreen generously and reapply every two hours, or more often if you are sweating or swimming. Use a generous amount of sunscreen on all exposed skin, including your lips, ears, and the backs of your hands. Wash your hands and neck.

  • Wear protective clothing.Sunscreen does not provide complete protection from UV rays. To be safe, cover your skin with clothing that is dark and tightly woven, and wear a broad-brimmed hat to increase your protection.
    Clothing that is designed to protect against the sun can also be purchased by companies. A dermatologist can provide you with a list of recommended brands.
    Protect your eyes by wearing sunglasses that protect you against both UVA and UVB rays.

  • Avoid tanning beds.Tanning beds use light to create a tan, and this light can increase your risk of skin cancer.

  • Be aware of sun-sensitizing medications.Some common prescription and over-the-counter drugs can make your skin more sensitive to sunlight.
    Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about the possible side effects of any medications you are taking. If these medications increase your sensitivity to sunlight, be extra careful to avoid the sun whenever possible in order to protect your skin.

  • Make sure to check your skin regularly and tell your doctor if you notice any changes.Be sure to check your skin often for new growths, changes in existing moles, freckles, bumps, and birthmarks.
    Check your face, neck, ears, and scalp in a mirror. Look at your chest and trunk, as well as the tops and undersides of your arms and hands. Also check the front and back of your legs, as well as your feet. Check your genital area and between your toes. Don't put your buttocks in the glue.

What is the survival rate of skin cancer?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention melanoma accounts for approximately 75 percent of all skin cancers. Fortunately , it is one of the types of cancer with the highest survival rate. The five-year survival rate for melanoma has improved from about 40 percent in 1991 to almost 70 percent in 2013. Survival rates are still higher if the melanoma is removed via surgery and radiation or chemotherapy treatments are not needed.

How are skin cancers removed?

Skin cancers to include Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) can be treated through many different types of treatment modalities There are a variety of surgical procedures for the removal of skin cancers including Mohs micrographic surgery and excisional surgery with Mohs micrographic surgery being considered by a majority of dermatologists as best practice in the management of basal cell carcinomas Surgical excision is also very common but typically would not be recommended for the removal of any size or dimensionally large cancer Beyond this technique there are procedures such as cryotherapy laser.

How do you know if a spot is cancerous?

You can tell if a growth is cancerous by looking at the size color and location of the lesion Most moles are benign - meaning they aren't cancers; however it's always best to get checked out by your dermatologist A specialist there will be able to tell you whether or not that mole is cancerous or something else.

Do all skin cancers need to be removed?

All skin cancers should be treated by your doctor However some of these can be removed with surgery or cryotherapy which uses liquid nitrogen to freeze the cancerous cells Small-cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for example are often successfully removed using this method Your dermatologist will determine how best to treat your skin cancer depending on factors like location size and type of melanoma cell found in the biopsy sample.

Should BCC be removed?

Why or why not? The BCC is a benign tumor that can be removed without any risk or side effect The only time this cannot be done is when there is extensive invasion of the overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue When this occurs the BCC may need to be excised with a larger margin of normal skin around it because it has invaded locally The BCC will grow back in most cases especially when on prominent areas like the face and scalp However it should never be ignored and left untreated as they are a significant source of morbidity in patients.

Diagnosis Skin cancer

First, your specialist could raise you if you have noticed any changes in any existing moles, freckles or different skin spots or if you’ve noticed any new skin growths. Next, your dermatologist can examine all of your skin, as well as your scalp, ears, palms of your hands, soles of your feet, between your toes, around your sex organ and between your buttocks.

If a skin lesion is suspicious, a diagnostic assay is also performed. In an exceedingly biopsy, a sample of tissue is removed and sent to a laboratory to be examined beneath a magnifier by a pathologist. Your dermatologist will tell you if your skin lesion is skin cancer, what kind you have got and discuss treatment options.

To diagnose skin cancer, your doctor may do one or more of the following:

  • Examine your skin.Your doctor will examine your skin to see if any changes are likely to be skin cancer. If further testing is needed, this may be confirmed.

  • Sample a suspicious area of skin for testing (a biopsy).Your doctor may remove the suspicious-looking skin for laboratory testing. A biopsy can determine whether you have cancer and the type of cancer you have.

How bad the cancer is

If your doctor detects skin cancer, you may have additional tests to determine the extent of the cancer (stage).

If you have a basal cell carcinoma on the skin, your doctor may only need to take a biopsy to determine the cancer stage. But if you have a large squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, or melanoma, your doctor may recommend further tests. To determine the extent of the cancer, it is necessary to examine the affected area.

  1. X-ray

  2. (computed tomography) scans(CT)

  3. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Additional tests might include imaging tests to look for signs of cancer in nearby lymph nodes, or a procedure to remove a nearby lymph node and test it for signs of cancer (a Sentinel lymph node biopsy).

  1. Blood analysis

Doctors use Roman numerals to indicate a cancer's stage. Stage I cancers are small and localized to the area where they began. Stage IV indicates advanced cancer that has spread to other areas of the body.

The stage of skin cancer determines the type of treatment that will be most effective.

Treatment Skin cancer

Treatment depends upon the stage of willcer. Stages of carcinoma vary from stage zero to stage IV. The higher the number, the more cancer has spread.

Typically a diagnostic assay alone can take away all the cancer tissue if the cancer is little and restricted to your skin’s surface only.

Depending on the size, type, and location of skin cancer or precancerous lesions, your treatment options will vary. For example, small cancers that are limited to the surface of the skin may not require any treatment other than a biopsy that removes the cancerous cells. Entire growth.

  1. Skin grafting transplant


  • Freezing.Your doctor may freeze actinic keratoses and some small early skin cancers with liquid nitrogen. When the frozen tissue thaws, it will fall off.

  • Excisional surgery.This type of treatment may be appropriate for any type of skin cancer. Your doctor will cut out ( excise) the cancerous tissue and a surrounding margin of healthy skin. A wide excision -- removing extra normal skin around the tumor -- may be recommended in some cases.

  • Mohs surgery.This procedure is for larger, recurring or difficult-to-treat skin cancers. It can be used to treat both basal and squamous cell carcinomas in areas where it is necessary to preserve as much skin as possible.
    During Mohs surgery, your doctor removes the skin growth layer by layer with a microscope. By doing this, he is able to remove cancerous cells without damaging surrounding healthy skin.

  • Cryotherapy is a process that uses electrodesiccation or curettage to freeze the cells.After removing most of a growth, your doctor scrapes away layers of cancer cells using a device with a circular blade. If there is still some cancer left, an electric needle will destroy it. Alternatively, liquid nitrogen can be used to freeze the base and edges of the treated area.
    Basal cell and thin squamous cell cancers can be treated with these simple procedures.

  • Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses radiation to kill cancer cells.Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams to kill cancer cells. This treatment may be an option when surgery cannot completely remove the cancer.

  • Chemotherapy.Cancer treatments involve the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. For cancers that are confined to the top layer of skin, topical applications of anti-cancer agents may be made directly to the skin. Systemic chemotherapy can be used to treat cancers that have spread to other parts of the body.

  • Photodynamic therapy.This treatment destroys cancer cells with a combination of laser light and medications that make cancer cells more sensitive to light.

  • Biological therapy.Biological therapy uses your body's immune system to destroy cancer cells.

Preparing for your appointment

If you notice any unusual skin changes that make you worry, see your family doctor. Sometimes you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in skin diseases and conditions (dermatologist).

It is a good idea to be well-prepared for appointments, as they can be brief and there is often a lot of material to cover. Here is some information that will help you get ready and know what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Please be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions.Make sure to ask if there are any requirements in advance, such as restricting your diet.

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing so you can get a doctor's help if needed.Make sure to bring any materials that may be related to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment. This includes anything that may seem unrelated at first, but could have a connection later on.

  • Write down key personal information,It is important to allow the decoupage to dry fully before putting the piece back in its frame. Avoid making any major changes or stresses in your life while the decoupage is drying.

  • Make a list of all medications,The vitamins and supplements you're taking.

  • Make sure someone else is available in case something goes wrong.If you forget something during your appointment, someone who is with you may remember it.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

You only have a limited amount of time with your doctor, so make sure you have questions prepared based on how important the topic is to you. List your most important questions first, and then list less important questions if time permits. Some basic questions to ask your doctor about skin cancer include:

  • Do I have skin cancer?

  • What type of skin cancer do I have?

  • Will I need additional tests?

  • What is the speed at which my type of skin cancer grows and spreads?

  • What are my treatment options?

  • What are the potential side effects of each treatment?

  • Will surgery leave a scar?

  • Do I have an increased risk of getting skin cancer again?

  • How can I reduce the risk of getting additional skin cancers?

  • Should I have regular skin exams to check for additional cancers?

  • Should I see a doctor? What will that cost and will my insurance cover it?

  • Do you have any other options that might work as well as the medicine you're prescribing for me?

  • Can I take any brochures or printed material with me? What websites do you think I might find useful?

  • What will determine whether I need to make a follow-up visit?

Don't be afraid to ask questions about your health during your doctor appointment. You may also have other questions that occur to you.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you a number of questions. Being prepared to answer them may allow time to cover other points you want to address. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first start to notice changes in your skin?

  • Have you noticed a skin lesion that's grown or changed?

  • Do you have a skin disorder that causes bleeding or itching?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

General summary

  1. Skin cancer treatment varies according to the type of skin cancer as well as the stage of the cancer For example squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common types of skin cancer and often responds better to treatment than melanoma In general if you have been diagnosed with a skin cancer that has not spread to lymph nodes or distant organs your doctor may recommend surgery called Mohs micrographic surgery or conventional surgery followed by radiation therapy.

Skin Cancer : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

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