What is Testicular Cancer?
Testicular cancer starts in the male gland called a testicle. It can affect any man, but is most often found in men aged 15 to 44 years. It's fairly rare and very treatable if it's diagnosed early. Cured. The risk of death from this cancer is small with treatment.
The effectiveness of treatment for cancer depends on the type of cancer cell and how far it has spread. Doctors treating testicular cancer will try to avoid causing any side effects.
If you think you may have cancer, learn about the early signs and talk to a health care provider if you notice any unusual swelling or pain in your testicles.
Internal reproductive organs
External reproductive organs
Testicular cancer happens within the testicles (testes), that are placed within the scrotum, a loose bag of skin beneath the penis. The testicles turn out male sex hormones and spermatozoan for reproduction.
Compared with different varieties of cancer, male reproductive gland cancer is rare. However, testicular cancer is the commonest cancer in young males between the ages of fifteen and 35.
Seminoma is very treatable, even once cancer has developed on the far side of the testicle. looking at the kind and stage of testicular cancer, you'll receive one in every of many treatments, or a combination.
Testicular cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms: Pain or tenderness in a testicle especially if it does not go away after a few days This can be felt only when the person presses on the testicle A swelling of the scrotum that is seen as a lump (or even just as an area that feels different than usual) The scrotum is the sac-like structure under each testis that contains and protects the testicles Swelling or a feeling of heaviness may be present but only if there is a mass inside the scrotum A one-sided.
symptoms & signs The most common sign of testicular cancer is typically a lump but the infection may also cause a persistent pain in your testicles The disease can occur in one or both of your testicles and some men experience no symptoms at all While it's usually seen in younger men (ages 15 to 35) this cancer can affect older adults as well—and even children.
The testicles should have a firm, slightly spongy feel. The firmness of the testicle should be consistent throughout. The size of the testicles should also be about the same though one may be larger than the other. At the top and outside edge is a rubbery tube-like structure called the epididymis.
The testicles are where sperm are created. Male hormones such as testosterone are produced here. This hormone regulates sex drive and also initiates the growth of muscle, bone, and body hair in men.
Signs of a testicular tumor are:
If you experience a painless lump in your testicle, it is probably not serious.
If you experience swelling of the testicle (or any pain) or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum, it may be a sign of a health problem. Go see a doctor to check it out.
If you have pain or a dull ache in your testicle scrotum or groin, it may be a sign of an illness.
Changes in the male breast tissue can indicate whether or not the male is feeling tender.
If you find anything that looks like a lump or firm part on your testicle, you should see a doctor. Very few men who have testicular cancer feel pain at first. If you do experience pain, it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible.
Many men do not tell their doctor about these signs. On average, men wait about five months before saying anything. Since the tumor can spread during that time, it is important to reach out to a urologist if you notice any of these signs. This is especially true if a sign lasts for more than a few days. The urologist will want to check if cancer is growing or if there’s some other issue like a blocked urinary tract.
Epididymitis:The epididymis may swell, and this is often treated with antibiotics.
Testicular torsion:Treatment for testicular torsion often includes surgery.
Inguinal hernia:When a part of the intestine pierces a weak spot in the stomach muscles near the groin, it is often treated with surgery.
Hydrocele:If the fluid accumulates in the scrotum, it usually goes away on its own.
It is impossible to avoid all risk factors for testicular cancer. However, the best approach is to catch it early. Men with the highest risk for this disease include those who:
People who have a father or brother who had testicular cancer are at a higher risk for getting the disease.
Men who have a history of testes that have not dropped before birth (known as undescended testes or cryptorchidism) may have problems down the road.
Abnormal cells that may be responsible for infertility are called germ cell neoplasia in situ. This is most often found during a fertility test.
If you fall into any of these categories, do a monthly testicular self-exam to check for problems. If you find any issues early on, it may be easier to treat them.
Microlithiasis (small calcifications in the testicle) is not a risk factor for testicular cancer if it is not accompanied by other health problems.
More about Undescended Testes
Men who have a history of cryptorchidism (a condition where one or both testicles did not drop into the scrotum before birth) are more likely to develop a tumor. This means that a testicle did not grow inside the abdomen before birth. Surgery can correct this issue, but it is an invasive procedure. About 8 out of 100 patients who have testicular cancer will still develop it.
Types of testicular cancer
About 90% of all seminoma arises from germ cells in your testicles that clump along to create a mass or tumor. Germ cells eventually grow to be sperm. 2 sorts of testicular cancer arise from germ cells.
Seminoma: Slow-growing cancer that primarily affects people in their 40s or 50s.
Non-seminoma: Cancer that grows faster than seminomas. It primarily affects folks in their late teens, 20s and early 30s. There are four varieties of non-seminoma tumors. every is called once the kind of cell that creates the tumor. Non-seminoma tumors include embryonal carcinoma, vitellus sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma and teratoma.
Some carcinoma tumors encompass seminoma and non-seminoma cells.
Symptoms Testicular Cancer
Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include:
A lump or enlargement in either testicle
A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
A dull ache in the abdomen or groin
A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum
Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum
Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts
Cancer usually affects only one testicle.
When to see a doctor
See your doctor if you discover any pain, swelling or lumps in your testicles or groin area, particularly if these signs and symptoms last longer than 2 weeks.
Causes Testicular Cancer
It's not clear what causes carcinoma in most cases.
Testicular cancer develops once cells multiply quicker than usual, eventually forming a lump or tumor. Researchers aren’t positive what causes cells to behave this way. They are apprehending that the cells that become seminoma are sometimes germ cells.
Doctors recognize that gonad cancer happens once healthy cells associate degree exceedingly|in a very} egg becomes altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly manner thanks to keeping your body functioning normally. However, typically some cells develop abnormalities, inflicting this growth to urge out of management — these cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells kind a mass within the testicle.
Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that turn out immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and be converted into cancer isn't known.
Risk factors Testicular Cancer
Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include:
- An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes type within the abdominal space throughout vertebrate development and frequently descend into the pocket before birth. Men who have a balloon that is ne'er descended are at larger risk of carcinoma than are men whose testicles descended normally. The chance remains elevated albeit the testicle has been surgically resettled to the scrotum.Still, the bulk of men who develop testicular cancer don't have a history of ball testicles.
Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, comparable to doc syndrome, could increase your risk of sex gland cancer.
Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk.
Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, significantly those between ages fifteen and 35. However, it can occur at any age.
Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men.
Prevention Testicular Cancer
There's no thanks to forestall carcinoma.
Some doctors advocate regular orchis contemplations to spot male reproductive gland cancer at its earliest stage. however not all doctors agree. Discuss testicular self-examination along with your doctor if you're unsure concerning whether or not it's right for you.
Does testicular cancer spread quickly?
According to the American Cancer Society metastasis (the spreading of cancer cells to other regions of your body) is a serious concern with testicular cancer The risk of this happening depends on whether the cancer involves only one testicle or has spread to both testicles The different types of testicular cancers include seminoma which represents 75 percent of all cases and non-seminoma germ cell tumors Non-seminomas have a higher rate of metastasis than seminomas do because they are more likely to spread throughout the abdomen into nearby lymph nodes Because non-seminomas are more aggressive than seminomas.
Can you survive testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men younger than 35. According to a study published by “Cancer Research” journal in 2009 only about 25 percent of cancer patients survived for more than five years after first diagnosis However now there's something you can do to increase your chances of beating testicular cancer: get tested regularly Earlier detection allows the doctor to remove the affected testicle with surgery and significantly improve survival rates Getting an early diagnosis could also prevent the spread of malignant cells to other areas inside or outside the body (metastasis) As such there's no better.
How long is recovery for testicular cancer?
After surgery patients recover quickly and are often able to return home in two or three days However as with any major surgery there are some risks associated with testicular cancer treatment including: complications from anesthesia the formation of a blood clot after the operation (post-thrombotic syndrome) blood clots that travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
How painful is testicular removal?
Testicular self-examination or TSE is part of the overall strategy to detect testicular cancer at early stages In this process the doctor gently examines a man's testicles for swelling and lumps that can indicate cancer or other problems TSE is an important step in preventing this disease If you find a lump on your testicle that feels different from the other one don't be alarmed As long as there isn't also redness or warmth around it it might be a normal part of your anatomy called "spermatic cord." Or you might have another harmless condition such as epididy.
Can you walk after testicle removal?
Once the testicles are removed a man can still function sexually by means of phalloplasty Phalloplasty is a reconstructive surgery that involves building a penis using tissue from other parts of the body (forearm thigh or belly) However you need to note that it takes about 4-5 hours for the blood flow to return to normal after this kind of operation You may experience bleeding and lack of sensation around your groin area To start urinating again you may have to catheterize yourself until the blood flow returns Most men opt out for self-catheterization because they find it uncomfortable using.
Diagnosis Testicular Cancer
In some cases men discover carcinoma themselves, either accidentally or whereas doing a sex gland introspection to ascertain for lumps. In different cases, your doctor might observe a lump throughout a routine physical exam.
To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend:
- Ultrasound. A male reproductive gland ultrasound check uses sound waves to form a picture of the pouch associated testicles. throughout an ultrasound you lie on your back along with your legs spread. Your doctor then applies a transparent gel to your scrotum. A hand-held probe is stirred over your scrotum to make the ultrasound image.Associate ultrasound tests will facilitate your doctor verify the character of any testicular lumps, and adore whether or not the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. Associate ultrasound additionally tells your doctor whether lumps are within or outside of the testicle.
Blood tests. Your doctor may order tests to see the amount of growth markers in your blood. Growth markers are substances that occur ordinarily in your blood, however the levels of those substances could also be elevated in certain situations, together with sex gland cancer. A high level of a tumor marker in your blood doesn't mean you've got cancer, but it should facilitate your doctor in deciding your diagnosis.
Surgery to remove a testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy). If it's determined that the lump on your testis could also be cancerous, surgery to get rid of the testicle may be recommended. Your removed testicle is going to be analyzed to see if the lump is cancerous and, if so, what style of cancer.
Treatment Testicular Cancer
Treatment depends on many factors, as well as your health, treatment preferences, cancer stage, and neoplasm type. Seminomas tend to grow a lot slowly and respond higher to radiotherapy than non-seminomas. Each form of seminoma tumors respond well to therapy treatments.
If testicular cancer involves both seminoma and non-seminoma tumors, your supplier can treat it as a non-seminoma.
The choices for treating your testicular cancer depend upon several factors, including the kind and stage of cancer, your overall health, and your own preferences.
A testicular self-exam should be done after taking a warm bath or shower, when the scrotum is relaxed. It takes only a few minutes to do. To start, stand while the scrotum is relaxed.
Check each testicle.Roll each testicle between your thumb and forefingers.Touch the entire surface. The consistency of the testis should be uniform all around. It's normal for one testis to be slightly larger than the other.
Find the epididymis and vas deferens.These are soft tubes that are above and behind the testicle. These tubes collect and carry sperm. You will get familiar with how they feel over time.
Be on the lookout for changes that do not seem right.If you notice any lumps or bumps, be sure to check with your doctor to make sure they are not causing you any pain. Pain is not normal.
Check yourself at least once per month.Watch for any changes in size, shape, or texture.
If you notice any changes, such as a lump, or if it has been growing over time, you should see a doctor. Sometimes testicular cancer can spread quickly, so it's important to get it checked out as soon as possible.If you have any questions or concerns, talk to your doctor who specializes in the urinary system.
Health record and physical exam:Your urologist will talk with you about your health. They will examine your scrotum, abdomen, and lymph nodes. They will look for lumps, hardness, or swelling. If you have a history of undescended testes, tell them.
Ultrasound of the testicles: This imaging test will show inside the scrotum and if there is a lump that is suspicious. Other scans or x-rays may be done in case there is cancer in other parts of your body. MRI scans are rarely used, but they may be necessary in some cases. To check for brain and spinal cord problems, doctors will perform tests.
Blood test:A blood test is taken to check for signs of cancer. These are proteins and hormones made by some types of cancers. For example, AFP (a protein) and ACG (an enzyme) tumor markers rise with some cancers, but many types of cancers will not produce these markers. That means just because the markers are normal doesn't mean you don't have cancer. Olive oil is good for your health. It's important to ask your doctor about your tumor marker levels and to understand what is considered "normal."
Serum Tumor Marker Test:Before any treatment (such as surgery), tumor marker tests should be performed. If cancer is found, the tests will be repeated after treatment to track your progress. Some medicines and marijuana can produce false positive results for HCG. Tell your doctor about this if it happens. Marijuana and/or your medicine may have side effects.
Seminomas (cancerous cells) can raise high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), but they never produce AFP (alpha-fetoprotein).
AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) and HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) levels may go up in cases of nonseminomas.
The over-the-counter urinary pregnancy tests do not check for levels of HCG in the urine, which is not a reliable test for testicular cancer.
If your urologist finds cancer during these exams, he or she will want to know the exact type of cancer and whether it has spread. This is called "staging.This process helps the doctor choose the best treatments.
Your doctor will not take a tissue sample (biopsy) before surgery to check for cancer cells. After surgery is done, the cancerous tissue will be removed.
There are different stages of testicular cancer.
Stage 0:This is called "GCNIS.This is not really cancer, but it's a warning that cancer may grow. GCNIS may be found in the seminal tubules and nowhere else.
Stage I (IA, IB, IS):Cancer is found only in the testicle. So far, it has not spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Stage II (IIA, IIB, IIC):Cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes in the body. This means that cancer has not spread to other parts of the body.
Stage III (IIIA, IIIB, IIIC):Cancer has spread beyond the lymph nodes in the abdomen. Cancer may be found in other parts of the body, like distant lymph nodes or the lungs. The levels of a tumor marker are high.
Most testicular cancers start with cells in the testicles known as germ cells. These are the cells that make sperm. There are two main types of germ cell tumors (GCTs): seminomas and nonseminomas.
Seminoma – Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer in boys. It grows slowly and usually responds well to chemotherapy and radiation. Some types of testicular cancer, called seminomas, can sometimes cause high levels of hormones called HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin). However, seminomas never cause AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) levels to increase. Treatment typically includes surgery, along with radiation and chemotherapy. If the boy's cancer is considered to be in an inactive state, Seminomas are often treated with semino capsules.
Non-seminomas – There are different types of non-seminomas: choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and yolk sac tumor. These cancers grow more quickly and are less responsive to radiation and chemotherapy. Non-seminomas often result in elevated AFP (alpha fetoprotein) and/or HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) levels. Treatment for this type of cancer may involve surveillance. Some types of cancer require treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, or both. Later stages may require additional surgery.
Some testicular cancers originate from cells that perform other functions. Leydig cell tumors form when Leydig cells produce testosterone. Sertoli cell tumors come from Sertoli cells, which support normal sperm growth.
Testicular cancer may involve more than one type of cell.The best treatment for cancer will depend on the diagnosis (such as how advanced the cancer is and the risk of it returning after treatment) and whether the disease has spread.
A team of doctors (urologist, oncologist, radiation oncologist) will work together to find the best treatment for each patient. Treatment options will depend on the patient's specific diagnosis and health.
Before any treatment begins, men should talk to their urologist about whether or not they want to have a child. Infertility and changes in male hormones are common after certain treatments. Sometimes sperm banking may be useful before treatment, mostly if you hope to have children in the future.
Men can also ask about a testicular prosthesis (fake body part) before surgery. This is a way to make the testicles look more like their natural appearance after a testis is removed.
See More See Less
Regular doctor's visits include checking for changes in your physical exam and tumor marker tests. Imaging tests may include an ultrasound of your scrotum, chest x-rays, or CT scans. No matter what type of treatment a man should undergo screenings for signs of cancer. Low testosterone can also cause symptoms.
It is recommended that surveillance be performed for Stage 0 and some Stage 1 cancers.
Patients with stage I seminoma should have a physical exam and tumor marker test. Imaging may also be done:
It is necessary to water your succulent plants every 4-6 months during the first two years, and then every 6-12 months after that.
Patients who have stage 1 non-seminoma germ cell tumors (NSGCT) after surgery should have a physical exam and tumor marker test.
The flowering cycles for plants are typically every 2-3 months in year 1, every 2-4 months in year 2, every 4-6 months in year 3, and every 6-12 months in years 4-5.
After surgery, patients with stage I NSGCT should have a chest x-ray and other imaging.
It will need to be re-potted every 4-6 months in year 1, 4-12 months in year 2, and one time in years 3-5.
If cancer is growing or if hormone levels are changing, more treatment may be offered. If cancer is only being monitored, no treatment will be necessary.
Testicular cancer is the main treatment for this condition. Most often an operation to remove the entire testis is done. If the diagnosis is made early, other treatment options may be offered. Changes in fertility should be discussed first.
OrchiectomyTesticular cancer is diagnosed and treated with this surgery. The entire testicle and mass are removed through a small cut in the groin, along with the spermatic cord. The cell type is determined and staged with this surgery.
After surgery, regular monitoring is done to make sure the cancer does not return.
If one testicle is removed, the other should be okay. If the healthy testicle still makes enough testosterone, it is not a problem. (10-15% of testicular cancer survivors have low testosterone levels and can get treatment.)
If a man is concerned about his appearance, he may want to consider using a testicular prosthesis.
Testis-sparing surgery (TSS)This surgery is only recommended for men who have benign tumors. The tumor must be small and the man must have negative tumor markers before the surgery can be done. This is best for men with benign tumors, rather than men with cancer.
Regular surveillance is important after TSS is done because cancer may return. Other side effects, such as infertility, are possible.
If the man has a normal testicle on the other side, then TSS (Triple-Secret-Surgical) is not recommended.
Lymph node dissection (also called a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection or RPLND) is a procedure that involves removing a lymph node from the lower part of the stomach (the retroperitoneum).Lymph node removal is a complex surgery that limits the side effects of removing lymph nodes from the back of the abdomen. A skilled surgeon is needed and it can be helpful for some men. This surgery is an option for patients with stage 1 cancer and a high risk for recurrence. It's typically for men withIt is possible to use chemotherapy instead of seminoma tumors that are stage IIA or IIB.
After RPLND surgery, chemotherapy or surveillance is offered depending on the cancer location and risk of recurrence.
It is important to work with a skilled surgeon.
Radiation is used to kill cancer cells on the testis or in nearby lymph nodes. It is an option for seminoma-cell cancers because some forms of non-seminoma are resistant to radiation. If testicular cancer (either type) has spread to other parts of the body, radiation may be an option. There are several types of radiation therapy used.
Chemotherapy is used for cancers that have spread beyond the testicles or if the tumor markers increase after surgery. Tests such as serum tumor markers and imaging help determine how much chemotherapy should be given and whether it will help.
These drugs travel through the body and can cause side effects. For example, they can eradicate cancer cells that may have traveled to lymph nodes. It is also used to help lower the risk of cancer coming back after surgery.
For testicular cancer treatment, chemo drugs are given in three or four three-week cycles. Sometimes more surgery is done to remove tumors after the chemo drugs have worked.
Cancer is a complex disease, and beyond basic surgery care depends on the type of cancer. Even if cancer is found early and treated with follow-up tests, the outcome may vary depending on the type of cancer.
If cancer comes back after being treated, more treatment will be needed.
Testicular tumors in children are rare. If it's found early, it's often successful. If it's found later, it's harder to treat. Just like with men, this cancer often begins as a painless lump. The most common type of tumor in boys is yolk sac tumors and teratomas. The types of cells found in this passage are:
Yolk Sac Tumors.Tumors in adults are more dangerous when they grow.
Teratomas.Some germ cells grow in unpredictable ways and chemotherapy does not always work. They can be treated with surgery.
Gonadal Stromal Tumors.If you find these, they are more likely to spread and you may need a chest x-ray.
Gonadoblastoma and Dysgerminoma testicles that do not grow normally before birth are rare. It can happen to children with healthy testicles.
GonadoblastomasSome cancers can develop from benign tumors. In 50% of cases, these tumors can turn into cancer.
The most common treatments for children are: Some treatments that are commonly used on children are:
A physical examination of the groin area.A cut is made on the skin just above the pubic bone in order to remove the testicle. The surgeon then looks at the tumor to decide what steps to take next. This procedure is usually an outpatient service.
Testis Sparing Surgery (TSS).If the surgeon thinks the tumor is benign, they will choose to perform a TSS. This is based on how the tumor looks and whether or not the tumor has normal markers. The tumor tissue will then be removed by surgery. The sample will then be sent to a pathologist for testing (a biopsy).
Total Orchiectomy.If biopsy results show that you have cancer, surgery will be needed to remove the Testis. It may also be done if there are high tumor markers (a large tumor), or if you develop cancer after puberty.
Further treatmentIf the cancer is more aggressive, treatments such as radiation or chemotherapy may be offered.
After treatment, children are checked for at least two years to make sure everything is okay. Physical exams, tumor marker tests, and chest x-rays are common follow-up tests. The most common outcome for boys who have one testicle removed is that they do not look any different. The removed testicle does not need to be cut and the other testicle usually continues to grow. If a boy experiences any problems after surgery, he will be checked again. If the prosthesis does not look the way you want it to, you may want to consider a different option. This is most often done after puberty when the person's body has changed.
Most boys who have been treated for testicular cancer will be healthy and able to have children when they grow up.
It will take two to four weeks for you to fully recover from an orchiectomy. You should not lift anything heavier than 10 pounds for the first two weeks and you should not have sex until you are completely healed. After four weeks, exercise should be avoided until the surgery has healed.
The chance of testicular cancer coming back after it has been diagnosed depends on the stage at diagnosis. However, it is very small, with a 5% or less chance of returning in one testicle and a 2% chance of growing in the other testicle.
It is important to learn how to do a testicular self-examination. It is also important to see your urologist on a regular basis for follow-up care based on your diagnosis. How often and for how long you will need follow-up care is based on what you were diagnosed with.
If cancer recurs, the doctor will want to find it and treat it as quickly as possible. Additional treatment depends on the type and location of the cancer. RPLND (radical prostatectomy, lymph node dissection, and chemotherapy) may be necessary.
Sex Life and Fertility
Removing one testicle should not alter your sexual energy or fertility (the chance of having a child). Most men can have a normal erection after surgery. Still, men diagnosed with testicular cancer have a higher risk of infertility and low testosterone than the others. You may also experience brief side effects. If lymph nodes are removed, it may be harder for a man to ejaculate.
If you experience problems with ejaculation, there are drugs that can help. If you are concerned, talk to your doctor. You can also try to keep in mind using a bank sperm before treatment.
Your body will eventually return to a healthy balance as you heal. Over time, the healthy testicle and lymph nodes will produce enough testosterone to help you return to normal. Your doctor may check your hormone levels on an annual basis as part of your check-up.
Heart Disease Risk
Patients who have had radiation and/or chemotherapy should be aware of their heart health. After treatment, their risk for cardiovascular disease increases. Making simple lifestyle changes, such as exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and avoiding smoking and vaping, can help prevent problems. You should make regular visits to the doctor to have your blood pressure, lipid, and glucose levels tested.
What is the success rate for treating testicular tumors?
Surgery and chemotherapy or radiation can cure almost all tumors, including those that are low stage or early in their development. These treatments also cure at least 85% of more advanced tumors.
Will the cancer grow in the other testicle?
For boys who have been diagnosed with a tumor, it’s very rare for a new tumor to form after treatment. In adults, there is a 2-3% chance of a tumor growing in the opposite side. Most often, no new tumor will grow after treatment. Checking your body regularly with self-exams is very helpful for peace of mind.
How do I perform a testicular self-exam?
Having monthly self-exams is the best way to find a tumor early. Check your testicles right after taking a hot bath or shower. The exam should be done while standing, and it only takes a few minutes.
Check each testicle.Check each testicle for size and firmness. The size and shape of each testicle should be the same. It's normal for one to be slightly larger than the other.
Find the epididymis and vas deferens.These are soft tubes that are above and behind the testicle. These tubes collect and carry sperm. You will get used to how they feel.
Be on the lookout for changes that don't seem right.If you notice lumps or bumps, be sure to check them out. If there is no pain, they are probably not normal.
Check yourself at least once per month.Look for any changes in the size, shape, or texture of the leaves.
If you notice a change in your body that makes you feel pain or other discomfort, go see a doctor. Changes could not always be cancer, but if it is cancer you have a better chance of getting cured if you see your urologist as soon as possible.
After having an orchiectomy, will I be able to have children?
Most boys can have children when they grow-up. Generally, normal sperm growth occurs in the final testicle. This means a man can stay fertile. However, there is a greater risk of infertility than the general population. Talk to your doctor before surgery. Sperm banking and fertility coaching may help you increase your chances of having a child. There are a variety of options available to survivors of testicular cancer. You can talk to a fertility specialist as soon as possible (often within six months).
How long does it take for a child to recover from an inguinal orchiectomy?
This procedure is an outpatient so most boys go home the same day. Your son should avoid contact sports for at least two weeks but should be able to return to school within one week.
How long does it take for a man to recover from an operation to remove his testicles?
After surgery, the scrotum will be swollen. The swelling usually goes down within two to four weeks. You may be able to do most of your usual activities after two to three weeks. Wait for the incision to heal before having sex. Do not lift heavy objects or do any strenuous activity until the wound has healed. It will take some effort over the course of a few weeks.
Preparing for your appointment
Make a briefing together with your GP or a general practitioner if you discover a lump on a testicle.
If your doctor suspects you may have male reproductive gland cancer, you'll be called a doctor who specializes in diagnosis and treating conditions of the tract and male system (urologist) or a doctor who specializes in treating cancer (oncologist).
What you can do
Because appointments are often brief, and since there's often tons of ground to cover, it's a decent plan to be well-prepared. strive to:
Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you create the appointment, raise if there's something you would like to try to do in advance.
Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that will appear unrelated to the explanation that you scheduled the appointment.
Write down key personal information, including any other medical conditions, major stresses or recent life changes.
Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements you're taking.
Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it is tough to require all the knowledge provided throughout an Associate in Nursing appointment. somebody who accompanies you will bear in mind one thing that you simply incomprehensible or forgot.
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is probably going to raise you a variety of questions. Being able to answer them could permit longer later to hide different points you wish to address. Your doctor may ask:
When did you begin experiencing symptoms?
Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
How severe are your symptoms?
What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
What you can do in the meantime
Your time along with your doctor is limited, therefore getting a listing of queries will assist you build the foremost of some time together. List your questions from most vital to least important just in case time runs out. For sex gland cancer, some basic inquiries to raise your doctor include:
Do I have testicular cancer?
What type of testicular cancer do I have?
Can you explain my pathology report to me? Can I have a copy of my pathology report?
What is the stage of my testicular cancer?
Will I need any additional tests?
What are my treatment options?
What are the chances that treatment will cure my testicular cancer?
What are the side effects and risks of each treatment option?
Is there one treatment that you think is best for me?
What would you recommend to a friend or family member in my situation?
Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?
If I would like a second opinion, can you recommend a specialist?
I'm concerned about my ability to have children in the future. What can I do before treatment to plan for the possibility of infertility?
Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?
In addition to the queries that you've ready to raise your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions that return to mind throughout your appointment.
Surgery is the most common treatment for testicular cancer. The doctor may remove only one testicle or both testicles if the cancer has spread beyond them. If a person wants to have children after treatment he can store sperm before surgery. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are also used to treat this type of cancer.
Testicular cancer which is more common in men between the ages of 15 and 35 can be treated without removal of the testicle It can often be cured with surgery to remove only the affected part of the testicle If cancer has spread beyond that area chemotherapy may be recommended.