Coronary Artery Disease :Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What Is Coronary Artery Disease(CAD) ?

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a narrowing or blockage of your coronary arteries, typically because of plaque buildup. Your coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood for your heart. Plaque buildup in those arteries limits how a good deal blood can attain your heart.

Picture two site visitors lanes that merge into one because of construction. Traffic keeps flowing, just greater slowly. With CAD, you won't word anything is incorrect till the plaque triggers a blood clot. The blood clot is like a concrete barrier in the middle of the road. Traffic stops. Similarly, blood can’t attain your heart, and this causes a heart attack.

What Is Coronary Artery Disease(CAD) ?
Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery ailment (CAD) is the most not unusual kind of heart sickness. It is the main reason for death inside the United States in both males and females.

CAD takes place when the arteries that deliver blood to coronary heart muscle emerge as hardened and narrowed. This is because of the buildup of cholesterol and different cloth, referred to as plaque, on their internal partitions. This buildup is known as atherosclerosis. As it grows, less blood can glide via the arteries. As a result, the heart muscle can't get the blood or oxygen it wishes. This can lead to chest pain (angina) or a heart assault. Most heart assaults happen whilst a blood clot abruptly cuts off the hearts' blood delivery, inflicting everlasting heart damage.

Over time, CAD can also weaken the heart muscle and make a contribution to heart failure and arrhythmias. Heart failure manners the coronary heart can't pump blood nicely to the relaxation of the body. Arrhythmias are adjustments within the regular beating rhythm of the coronary heart.

  1. Circulatory system

  1. Heart

  2. Arteries

  3. Veins

  4. Blood vessels

Medical terms

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of coronary heart disease. Although it’s the pinnacle cause of demise inside the U.S., there is lots you can do to prevent or treat it.

  • The trouble starts while a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. It can take decades to block the blood waft, however it could sooner or later reason a coronary heart attack or failure.

  • Coronary artery disease happens when the major blood vessels that supply your heart become damaged or diseased. Usually, cholesterol-containing deposits and inflammation are to blame.

  • Coronary arteries supply blood to your heart. If plaque builds up on these arteries, it can narrow the flow of blood and cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or other signs and symptoms of coronary artery disease. If a blockage in the heart causes a heart attack, that person can die.

  • If coronary artery disease is going to develop, it may not be obvious until there is a significant blockage or heart attack. However, you can take steps to prevent and treat coronary artery disease by living a healthy lifestyle.

  • Coronary artery disease or CAD is a condition that affects your heart's blood vessels and the flow of blood to your heart It's caused by build-up of plaque in your coronary arteries which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart The plaques narrow the arteries and can cause a partial or complete blockage If a blockage occurs it can slow or stop the blood flow through that artery or it can burst open and cause a clot to form on the plaque which then blocks the artery.

Symptoms Coronary artery disease(CAD)

When your heart doesn’t get enough arterial blood, you could experience a ramification of signs. Angina (chest soreness) is the maximum not unusual symptom of CAD.

If your coronary arteries narrow, they cannot supply enough oxygen-rich blood to your heart - especially when you are working out hard. At first the decreased flow may not cause any symptoms. However, as plaque continues to build up in your coronary arteries, eventually you may experience symptoms. You may develop coronary artery disease signs and symptoms if you have them.

  • Chest pain (angina). When angina occurs, you may feel pressure or tightness in your chest. This pain is called angina and often occurs on the middle or left side of the chest. Angina is generally triggered by physical or emotional stress. The pain usually goes away after stopping the stressor. Stress can cause pain in various areas of the body. For some people, the pain may be brief and sharp.

  • Shortness of breath.If your heart can't pump enough blood, you may experience shortness of breath or extreme fatigue when engaging in physical activity.

  • Heart attack.If your coronary artery is blocked, it will cause a heart attack. The classic signs and symptoms of a heart attack include crushing pressure in your chest and pain in one or more areas of your body, such as your shoulder or arm. You may also experience shortness of breath, sweating, and difficulty breathing.
    Women are more likely than men to have less typical symptoms of a heart attack such as neck or jaw pain. They may also experience other symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and nausea.A heart attack can occur without any obvious signs or symptoms.

When to see a doctor

If you think you are having a heart attack, please call 911 or your local emergency number. If you do not have access to emergency medical services, someone should drive you to the nearest hospital. Do not attempt to drive yourself to the hospital – only choose this as a last resort.

If you have any risk factors for coronary artery disease (such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, diabetes, obesity, or a strong family history of heart disease), talk to your doctor. Your doctor may want to test you for coronary artery disease if you have any signs or symptoms.If your arteries become narrowed, you may experience symptoms.

Causes Coronary artery disease(CAD)

CAD is as a result of plaque buildup inside the walls of the arteries that deliver blood to the heart (called coronary arteries) and other parts of the body.

Plaque is made up of deposits of cholesterol and other substances inside the artery. Plaque buildup causes the internal of the arteries to narrow over time, that may partially or totally block the blood flow. This procedure is called atherosclerosis.

Coronary artery disease is thought to develop from damage or injury to the inner layer of a coronary artery. This damage may be caused by various factors, such as:

  • Smoking

  • High blood pressure

  • High cholesterol

  • Diabetes or insulin resistance

  • Not being active (sedentary lifestyle)

Cholesterol and other waste products are deposited in the area of an artery's inner wall when it is damaged. This process is called atherosclerosis. If the plaque surface breaks or ruptures, blood cells called platelets will cluster together at the site. If you see a clump like this, try to fix it so that the artery leading to a heart attack is not blocked.

Risk factors Coronary artery disease(CAD)

Understanding the risk factors for CAD can help with your plan to prevent or decrease the chance of developing the sickness.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, which includes diseases of the heart muscle. Some risk factors for CVD include: high blood pressure, being overweight, having diabetes, and smoking.

  • Age.As you get older, your risk of having damaged or narrowed arteries increases.

  • Sex.Men are more likely to develop coronary artery disease. However, the risk for women increases after menopause.

  • Family history. If you have a family history of heart disease, you are at a higher risk for developing coronary artery disease. This is especially true if a close relative developed heart disease before the age of 55 or if your mother or sister had heart disease. I must have developed this by the time I am 65.

  • Smoking.Smoking increases a person's risk of heart disease and coronary artery disease. Breathing in secondhand smoke also increases that risk.

  • High blood pressure.High blood pressure can lead to hardening and narrowing of your arteries, which can reduce the flow of blood.

  • High blood cholesterol levels. High levels of cholesterol in your blood can increase the risk of heart disease. High cholesterol can be caused by a high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is known as the "bad" cholesterol. A low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is known as the "good" cholesterol, protects your heart. Good cholesterol can also contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  • Diabetes.Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing coronary artery disease. Both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease share similar factors such as obesity and high blood pressure.

  • Overweight or obesity.Being overweight usually increases other risky behaviors.

  • Physical inactivity.Excessive lack of exercise is linked with coronary artery disease and some of its risk factors.

  • High stress.Stress can damage your arteries, which can worsen other risk factors for coronary artery disease.

  • Unhealthy diet.Eating too much food that includes high amounts of saturated fat, trans fat, salt, and sugar can increase your risk of coronary artery disease.

Certain risks often occur together, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. When grouped together, these risk factors make you more likely to develop coronary artery disease. For example, metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that include high blood pressure, obesity, and cholesterol levels. People with these conditions are at an increased risk for coronary artery disease.

Coronary artery disease can develop without any classic risk factors. Researchers are currently investigating other possible risk factors, such as:

  • Sleep apnea.This disorder causes you to stop breathing during sleep. This can cause low levels of oxygen in your blood, which increases blood pressure and strains the cardiovascular system. This could lead to coronary artery disease.

  • High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a measure of how strongly your body reacts to inflammation.This protein is found in higher concentrations when there is inflammation somewhere in your body. High hs-CRP levels may be a risk factor for heart disease. It is believed that as coronary arteries narrow you will have more hs-CRP in your blood.

  • High triglyceride levels.This is a type of fat in your blood. High levels may increase the risk for coronary artery disease, especially for women.

  • Homocysteine.High levels of homocysteine are an amino acid your body uses to make protein and to build tissue. But having high levels of homocysteine may increase your risk of developing coronary artery disease.

  • Preeclampsia.Pregnancy can cause a condition called hypertension, which results in increased levels of protein in the urine. This can increase the risk of heart disease later on in life.

  • Alcohol use.Heavy drinking can lead to heart muscle damage. This can make it harder for the heart to function properly, and it can also worsen other factors that increase your risk of developing coronary artery disease.

  • Autoimmune diseases.People with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus have an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis.

Complications Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease can lead to:

  • Chest pain (angina).If your coronary arteries are narrow, your heart may not receive enough blood when it is needed most - particularly during physical activity. This can cause chest pain (angina) or shortness of breath.

  • Heart attack.If a cholesterol plaque breaks and a blood clot forms, this can cause a heart attack. If you don't receive treatment, the lack of blood flow to your heart can damage your heart muscle. The extent of damage depends on how quickly you are treated.

  • Heart failure.If your heart does not get enough oxygen and nutrients, or if it has been damaged by a heart attack, it may become too weak to pump enough blood. This could lead to heart failure.

  • Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia).If there is not enough blood flow to the heart or damage to the heart tissue, this can cause abnormal heart rhythms.

Prevention Coronary Artery Disease

You can’t continually save your coronary artery disorder. That’s because some danger factors are out of your control. But there’s plenty you can do to decrease your danger. Many techniques to lower your hazard additionally help manage your circumstance once you’re identified.

The same lifestyle habits that can help treat coronary artery disease can also help prevent it. A healthy lifestyle can keep your arteries strong and free of plaque. To improve your heart health, follow these tips:

  • Quit smoking.

  • Lowering blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes levels is possible by controlling the conditions under which they occur.

  • Stay physically active.

  • Eating a low-fat, low-salt diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is healthy.

  • Maintain a healthy weight.

  • Reduce and manage stress.

How long can you live with coronary artery disease?

The answer to this question is 'It all depends.' We know that isn't much of an answer But it's the honest truth It depends on a number of factors including things you can control (like lifestyle choices) and things you can't (like your family history) The good news is if you address your risk factors now and live a heart-healthy life you may be able to prevent or delay the onset of coronary artery disease.

Can you live a full life with coronary artery disease?

Heart disease is the top killer of both men and women in the United States However you may not have to let heart disease keep you from living a full life. The key is knowing what to do and when Make heart-healthy lifestyle changes today that will help you avoid or reduce the impact of heart disease later on.

How serious is coronary artery?

Coronary artery disease or CAD is a condition that affects your heart's blood vessels and the flow of blood to your heart It's caused by build-up of plaque in your coronary arteries which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart The plaques narrow the arteries and can cause a partial or complete blockage If a blockage occurs it can slow or stop the blood flow through that artery or it can burst open and cause a clot to form on the plaque which then blocks the artery.

Diagnosis Coronary artery disease(CAD)

If a physician feels you're vulnerable to coronary heart disease, they'll carry out a danger evaluation.

They'll ask you about your clinical and circle of relatives history and your life-style, and they may take a look at it.

The doctor will ask questions about your medical history, do a physical exam, and order routine blood tests. The doctor may also suggest one or more diagnostic tests, including:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG).An electrocardiogram records the electrical signals that travel through your heart. This information can often reveal evidence of a previous heart attack or one that is in progress.

  • Echocardiogram.An echocardiogram uses sound waves to create images of your heart. During the exam, your doctor can determine whether all parts of the heart wall are working together to help the heart contract and pump blood.
    If parts of the body that move easily are struggling, this could be a sign of a heart attack or conditions that are restricting oxygen to the body.

  • Exercise stress test. If your symptoms are most often experienced during exercise, your doctor may ask you to walk or ride on a treadmill while having an ECG. Sometimes an echocardiogram (a picture of your heart) is also done while you are doing these exercises. This is called a stress echo. In some cases, medication can be given to stimulate your heart. Exercise may be substituted for.

  • Nuclear stress test.This test is similar to an exercise stress test, but it also includes images on ECG recordings. It measures how much blood flow your heart has at rest and during stress. A tracer is injected into your bloodstream, and special cameras can detect areas in your heart that receive less blood.

  • Cardiac catheterization and angiogram. During cardiac catheterization, a doctor inserts a catheter into an artery or vein in your groin neck or arm and into your heart. X-rays are used to help guide the catheter to the correct position. Sometimes a dye is injected through the catheter. The dye helps blood vessels show up better on the x-ray. Clear any blockages with images and outlines.
    If you have a blocked artery, a balloon can be inserted through the catheter to improve the flow of blood. A mesh tube (stent) may be used to keep the artery open.

  • Cardiac CT scan.A CT scan of the heart can help your doctor see calcium deposits in your arteries, which may narrow the arteries. If calcium is discovered in large amounts, it may be an indication that you have coronary artery disease.
    A CT coronary angiogram involves receiving a contrast dye via IV during a CT scan. This can produce detailed images of your heart's arteries.

Treatment Coronary artery disease(CAD)

It’s crucial to lessen or manipulate your danger factors and are looking for treatment to lower the risk of a heart assault or stroke if you’re diagnosed with CAD.

Treatment also depends on your modern health situation, risk elements, and universal well-being. For instance, your medical doctor may prescribe medicinal drug therapy to deal with excessive ldl cholesterol or excessive blood strain, or you can obtain medicine to manipulate blood sugar when you have diabetes.

A person with coronary artery disease usually needs to make lifestyle changes, and may need drugs or procedures to help them.

Lifestyle changes

Making a commitment to following healthy lifestyle changes can help promote healthier arteries.

  • Quit smoking.

  • Eat healthy foods.

  • Exercise regularly.

  • Lose excess weight.

  • Reduce stress.


There are various drugs that can be used to treat coronary artery disease, including:

  • Cholesterol-modifying medications. These medications reduce (or modify) the material that builds up on the coronary arteries. As a result, cholesterol levels (especially low-density lipoprotein or LDL cholesterol) decrease. Your doctor can prescribe a variety of medications, including statins and niacin. Fibrates and bile acid sequestrants are ingredients that help to reduce fat storage.

  • Aspirin.Your doctor may recommend taking an aspirin or other blood thinner every day to reduce the likelihood of a blood clot. This could help prevent obstruction of your coronary arteries.
    Taking aspirin can help prevent future heart attacks. However, aspirin is dangerous if you have a bleeding disorder or are taking another blood thinner, so ask your doctor before taking it.

  • Beta blockers.These drugs slow your heart rate and decrease blood pressure. This decreases the amount of oxygen your heart needs, which reduces the risk of a future heart attack.

  • Calcium channel blockers.These drugs may be used in conjunction with beta blockers if beta blockers alone do not work or instead of beta blockers if you are unable to take them. These drugs can improve symptoms of chest pain.

  • Ranolazine.This medication may help people with chest pain (angina). It may be prescribed along with a beta blocker or instead of a beta blocker if you cannot take it.

  • Nitroglycerin.Nitroglycerin tablets can control chest pain by temporarily widening your coronary arteries and reducing your heart's need for blood.

  • ACE inhibitors and ARBs are medications that block the action of angiotensin II.These drugs lower blood pressure and may help prevent the development of coronary artery disease.

There are procedures that can improve blood flow.

Sometimes more aggressive treatment is needed. Here are some possible solutions:

Angioplasty and stent placement (percutaneous coronary revascularization) are treatments for heart disease.

A doctor inserts a long, thin tube into your artery. A wire with a deflated balloon is passed through the tube to the narrowed area. The balloon is then inflated, compressing the deposits against the artery walls.

A stent is often left in an artery to help keep it open. The stent slowly releases medication to help keep the artery open.

Coronary artery bypass surgery

A surgeon creates a bypass using a vessel from another part of your body to allow blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed coronary artery. This procedure is most often used in people who have multiple narrowed coronary arteries. Arteries are tubes that carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body.

More Information

  • What is the best way to treat angina? Some people may need medications, changes to their lifestyle, or both. It is up to the person with angina to decide what is best for them.

  • Drug-eluting stents

  • Is coronary artery disease an angioplasty or bypass surgery?

  • Coronary angioplasty and stents

  • Coronary bypass surgery

Lifestyle and home remedies

Lifestyle changes can help you prevent or stop the progression of coronary artery disease.

  • Stop smoking. Smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease. Nicotine constricting blood vessels can make your heart work harder, while carbon monoxide reducing oxygen in the blood can damage the lining of your blood vessels. Quitting is one of the best ways to reduce your risk of heart disease. A heart attack is a serious medical condition that can cause death.

  • Take steps to control your blood pressure. Your doctor may recommend blood pressure measurements at least every two years, but it's important to be checked more often if your blood pressure is higher than normal or if you have a history of heart disease. Optimal blood pressure is less than 120 systolic and 80 diastolic. mm Hg is a unit of measurement that represents the pressure exerted by mercury.

  • Check your cholesterol.Adults should get a cholesterol test when they are in their 20s and at least every five years afterward. Your doctor can help you determine what your cholesterol levels should be. The goal is to have an LDL cholesterol level below 130 mg/dL or 3.4 mmol/L.
    If you have other risk factors for heart disease, your target level of LDL cholesterol may be lower than 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L). Ask your doctor what level LDL is best for you. If your test results are not matching your targeted levels, you may need to have more-frequent cholesterol tests.

  • Keep diabetes under control.If you have diabetes, controlling your blood sugar levels can help reduce your risk of heart disease.

  • Eat heart-healthy foods.Eating lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts is a good way to stay healthy. Foods that are high in saturated fat and trans fat should be avoided, and salt and sugar should be limited. Eating fish once a week may help keep your heart healthy.

  • Avoid or limit alcohol.If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, this means up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.

  • Get moving.Exercise can help manage weight, control blood sugar levels, lower cholesterol, and reduce blood pressure. To achieve these benefits, you should get at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity every week.

  • Maintain a healthy weight.Being overweight increases your risk of coronary artery disease. If you lose even a small amount of weight, it can help reduce risk factors for this health problem.

  • Participate in cardiac rehabilitation.If you've had surgery your doctor may suggest that you participate in cardiac rehabilitation - a program of education counseling and exercise training that's designed to improve your health.

  • Manage stress.Reduce stress as much as possible. Take steps to manage stress effectively, such as practicing relaxation techniques and deep breathing.

  • Get your flu shot.Get vaccinated each year to reduce your risk of getting influenza.

Medical checkups are important. Some of the main risk factors for coronary artery disease (a condition in which the arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become clogged) have no symptoms at first. Early detection and treatment can help you maintain better heart health.

Alternative medicine

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of unsaturated fat that's thought to reduce inflammation throughout the body, which may be a contributing factor to coronary artery disease. However some studies haven't found a benefit yet. More research is needed.

  • Fish and fish oil.Fish and fish oil are the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Fatty fish, such as salmon herring and light canned tuna, contain the most omega-3 fatty acids and provide the most benefit. Fish oil supplements may offer some benefit but the evidence is strongest for eating fish.

  • Flax and flaxseed oil. Flax and flaxseed oil are also rich in beneficial omega-3 fatty acids. However, research has not found these sources to be as effective as fish in terms of reducing blood cholesterol levels. The shells of raw flaxseeds also contain soluble fiber which can help with constipation. More research is needed to determine if flaxseed can help lower blood pressure. Cholesterol is a type of fat found in the body.

  • There are other sources of omega-3 fatty acids besides eating olives.Other sources of omega-3 fatty acids include canola oil, soybeans, and soybean oil. These foods do not contain as many omega-3 fatty acids as fish and fish oil, but there is evidence that they may improve heart health.

Some supplements may help reduce your blood pressure or cholesterol level, two factors that contribute to coronary artery disease. These include:

  • Alpha-linolenic acid

  • Barley

  • Cocoa

  • Coenzyme Q10

  • In order to get the most fiber, include blond psyllium and oat bran in your diet. These fibers are found in oatmeal and whole oats.

  • Garlic

  • Supplements such as stanols and sterols can be found in some margarines such as Promise Smart Balance and Benecol.

Before adding a new over-the-counter medication or supplement to your treatment plan, always talk to your doctor. Some drugs and supplements can interact and cause side effects or make the current medications less effective.

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation and circulatory rehabilitation

Preparing for your appointment

If you think you may have symptoms of or risk factors for coronary artery disease, you should see your primary care doctor. If the problem persists or worsens, you may be referred to a heart specialist (cardiologist).

Here are some things to know about your appointment and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Please be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions.When you make your appointment, be sure to ask if there are any things you need to do in advance, such as restricting your diet. For some tests, for example, you may need to fast beforehand.

  • Please write down any symptoms you are experiencing, so that we can investigate them further.I should include any information that may be related to coronary artery disease.

  • Write down your key medical information.You should also tell the doctor about all of the other conditions you have, including any medications and supplements you're taking, as well as your family's history of heart disease.

  • Find a family member or friendIf you can, bring someone with you to the appointment. This person can help you remember what the doctor said.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Before your doctor appointment, you might want to ask questions like these:

  • What are the possible reasons for my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • What should I do while I am waiting for my next appointment?

  • What should prompt you to call 911 or emergency medical help in an emergency?

If you are referred to a cardiologist, some questions you may want to ask include:

  • What is the name of my illness?

  • What are the long-term risks associated with this condition?

  • What treatment do you recommend?

  • What are the possible side effects of medications that I am recommending?

  • What are the risks of surgery? Why might I choose to have it done?

  • What should I do to change my diet and lifestyle?

  • What restrictions do I need to observe if I am using decoupage?

  • When will I see you again for checkups?

  • I have other health problems. How can I best manage my conditions together?

If you have any questions about your condition, don't hesitate to ask.

What to expect from your doctor

If you go to see a doctor or cardiologist for heart-related symptoms, they may ask you some questions.

  • What are your symptoms?

  • When did you start having symptoms?

  • Have your symptoms been getting worse over time?

  • Do you experience chest pain or difficulty breathing?

  • Does vigorous exercise make your symptoms worse?

  • Do you know of any heart problems in your family?

  • Are you suffering from any other conditions?

  • What medications are you taking?

  • Have you ever had radiation therapy?

  • How often do you exercise?

  • What's your typical daily diet?

  • Are you currently smoking? How many cigarettes have you smoked in the past day? How long have you been a smoker? If you stop smoking, when will that be?

  • Do you drink alcohol? How much?

What you can do in the meantime

Making healthy lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating healthy foods, and getting more exercise can help protect you from coronary artery disease and its complications, including heart attack and stroke.

General summary

  • Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle become diseased This leads to angina and can eventually lead to a heart attack Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease and the leading cause of death in men and women.

  • Coronary artery disease is a health problem that you can't cure but it is treatable If your coronary arteries are clogged and narrowed the heart muscle just downstream of where the blockage occurs doesn't get enough blood flow This leads to chest pain (angina) or a heart attack -- which is when a part of the heart muscle dies because it didn't get enough oxygen Bypass surgery may be able to increase the amount of blood flowing through these arteries allowing for normal cardiac function.

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