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Dressler Syndrome :Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What Is Dressler Syndrome?

Dressler’s syndrome (a.Ok.A. Publish-myocardial infarction syndrome) is an autoimmune phenomenon that could arise after myocardial infarction and manifests 2-three weeks later as pericarditis and a pericardial effusion.

The diagnosis is medical and based on ECG modifications of pericarditis. Treatment includes aspirin and colchicine to decrease irritation. Anticoagulation should be avoided as a way to prevent hemorrhage into the pericardium and cardiac tamponade.

What Is Dressler Syndrome?
Dressler Syndrome

Dressler’s syndrome is a kind of pericarditis, inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). Inflammation related to Dressler’s syndrome is thought to be an immune machine response following damage to heart tissue or the pericardium, together with a coronary heart assault, surgical operation or annoying injury. Dressler’s syndrome signs and symptoms include chest ache, similar to that experienced at some point of a coronary heart assault, and fever. With the latest enhancements in heart attack remedies, Dressler’s syndrome is much less common than it was. However, after you’ve had this condition, it may appear once more. Dressler’s syndrome can also be known as postpericardiotomy, publish-myocardial infarction syndrome, and publish-cardiac harm syndrome. Symptoms are probable to seem weeks to months after a heart assault, surgical procedure or different coronary heart harm.

  1. Circulatory system

  1. Heart

  2. Arteries

  3. Veins

  4. Blood vessels

Medical terms

  • Dressler syndrome is inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart (pericarditis). It's believed to arise because of the immune gadget responding to damage to heart tissue or damage to the sac across the heart (pericardium). The harm can end from a coronary heart attack, surgical procedure or stressful injury. Symptoms consist of chest ache, which can be experienced like chest ache from a heart attack.

  • Dressler syndrome will also be known as put up-myocardial infarction syndrome, post-disturbing pericarditis, post-cardiac damage syndrome and post-pericardiotomy syndrome.

  • Dressler syndrome, additionally known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome, is a form of secondary pericarditis without or with pericardial effusion that occurs as a result of injury to the coronary heart or pericardium. Given its wide-ranging medical presentation, Dressler syndrome may be hard for fitness specialists to understand. This interest reviews the scientific presentation, evaluation, and control of sufferers with Dressler syndrome and highlights the role of the interprofessional crew in being concerned for patients with this situation.

Dressler syndrome also known as giant cell arteritis (GCA) or Takayasu's arteritis is a rare disease that can cause significant vision loss The disorder occurs when the body attacks its own blood vessels resulting in inflammation and damage to the arteries that supply blood to the brain Dressler syndrome affects both young and middle-aged adults and mostly women.

Dressler’s syndrome can happen after:

  • A heart attack (myocardial infarction).

  • Heart surgery.

  • A heart procedure.

  • Chest trauma from an accident or injury.

Dressler’s syndrome generally occurs within one to 6 weeks after coronary heart surgical treatment or a coronary heart assault, however it may take up to several months for signs and symptoms to increase.

Other names for Dressler’s syndrome encompass:

  • Post-myocardial infarction syndrome.

  • Post-cardiac injury syndrome.

  • Postpericardiotomy syndrome.

Symptoms Dressler syndrome

Symptoms can arise 2 to 5 weeks after the initial event. In a few people, signs and symptoms won't increase for as long as three months.Symptoms are likely to appear weeks to months after a coronary heart attack, surgical procedure or injury to the chest. Symptoms might consist of:

Symptoms of Dressler’s syndrome may include:

  • Fatigue.

  • Weakness.

  • Fever.

  • Chest pain that’s worse with breathing or lying down, can be felt in your chest, upper back or left shoulder and can get worse with activity.

  • Difficult or labored breathing (dyspnea). It may be more difficult to breathe when you recline or lie down.

  • Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) or heart palpitations.

  • Pericardial effusion (fluid buildup between your pericardium and your heart).

  • Painful joints.

  • Less of a desire to eat.

When to see a doctor

Seek emergency care of unexpected or persistent chest ache, which may additionally sign a coronary heart attack or other critical disease.

Causes Dressler syndrome

Experts assume Dressler syndrome is because of the immune machine's response to heart harm. The frame reacts to the injured tissue through sending immune cells and proteins (antibodies) to clean up and repair the affected vicinity. Sometimes this reaction causes inflammation inside the pericardium.

The specific cause of Dressler syndrome isn’t clear. It’s believed to occur whilst a heart surgery or coronary heart assault triggers an immune response in the pericardium. In reaction to an injury, the frame typically sends immune cells and antibodies to assist repair the vicinity. But an immune response can on occasion motivate too much inflammation.

Some of the events which have been recognized to cause Dressler syndrome include:

  • heart surgery, like open-heart surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery

  • percutaneous coronary intervention, also known as coronary angioplasty and stent placement

  • implantation of a pacemaker

  • cardiac ablation

  • pulmonary vein isolation

  • penetrating trauma to the chest

Dressler syndrome may occur after certain heart surgeries or procedures.

Complications Dressler Syndrome

The immune gadget reaction that causes Dressler syndrome may also cause fluid buildup within the tissues surrounding the lungs (pleural effusion).

Rarely, Dressler syndrome can reason more-extreme complications, along with:

  • Cardiac tamponade. Inflammation of the pericardium can cause fluid to accumulate in the sac (pericardial effusion). The fluid can place pressure on the heart, forcing it to work harder and reducing its capability to pump blood efficiently.

  • Constrictive pericarditis. Recurring or chronic infection can cause the pericardium to emerge as thick or scarred. The scarring can lessen the heart's potential to pump blood.

What is the best treatment for pericarditis?

Pericarditis is an inflammation of the sac around the heart The sac or pericardium protects the heart from injury Pericarditis can cause chest pain and heart palpitations that are similar to those caused by a heart attack Other common symptoms include fever fatigue and chills Since pericarditis often occurs near the beginning of a viral illness such as influenza it is frequently mistaken for a heart attack.

How can Dressler syndrome be prevented?

People usually are not aware of Dressler syndrome until symptoms arise. The only way to prevent this condition is with genetic testing when at-risk individuals have children. Genetic researchers may be able to find a cure for Dressler syndrome in the future but there are no prevention measures in place at this time.

What medication is contraindicated in Dressler's syndrome?

Dressler's syndrome or transient osteoporosis of hip is characterized by intense joint pain in the hip and subsequent bone fractures It is caused by injury to the sacroiliac joint a ligament that connects the upper part of the spine with the pelvic bone Consequently Dressler's syndrome can be considered as an inflammatory disease of this joint The disorder can be diagnosed by X-ray test that shows presence of soft tissue swelling around the joint Treatment involves use of analgesic drugs and surgical repair (such as arthrodesis) to stabilize the joint Long term prognosis depends on severity and duration of condition Medications used for treatment include NSAIDs such as ibuprofen.

Is Dressler's syndrome curable?

Dressler’s syndrome is a disorder of the arteries that supply blood to the stomach It occurs when a person has had a gastric ulcer at some point in their lifetime and then develops an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) The arterial lesions in Dressler’s syndrome are different from those found in typical abdominal aortic aneurysms and they respond differently to treatment.

How long does Dressler's syndrome last?

Dressler's syndrome is a temporary condition in which the mitral valve of the heart enlarges causing shortness of breath In most cases it lasts for only one or two days Some patients have been known to have the condition for as long as a few months Since the cause of Dressler's syndrome is unknown there are no treatments for it The best way to treat it is to wait and see if it goes away by itself.

The treatment of postpericardiotomy syndrome is dependent on the underlying cause. The symptoms of this condition resolve on their own within one to two months after the surgery but you can take steps to ease your discomfort in the meantime.

How long does Postpericardiotomy syndrome last?

Postpericardiotomy syndrome is a condition that can occur after heart surgery This syndrome causes the heart to enlarge and become less efficient at pumping blood throughout the body The most common symptom of postpericardiotomy syndrome is chest pain which appears or worsens after activity and sometimes when not doing anything at all At times this pain radiates to the back shoulder or abdomen Other symptoms of postpericardiotomy syndrome are palpitations and tachycardia (a rapid heartbeat) The pain associated with postpericardiotomy syndrome can be debilitating and may result in an inability to work or perform daily tasks.

Prevention Dressler Syndrome

Some studies advise that taking the anti-inflammatory medication colchicine (Colcrys, Gloperba, Mitgare) before coronary heart surgery might help save you Dressler syndrome.

Diagnosis Dressler syndrome

Your healthcare company will perform a physical examination and ask approximately your medical history, including any type of coronary heart condition you can have.

A fitness care company does an intensive physical examination, such as being attentive to the heart with a stethoscope. A sound known as a pericardial rub can arise when the pericardium is infected or when fluid has accumulated around the heart.

Tests which could assist diagnose Dressler syndrome consist of:

  • Complete blood count. Most people with Dressler syndrome have an improved white blood mobile matter.

  • Blood tests to measure inflammation. An elevated stage of C-reactive protein and an expanded erythrocyte sedimentation charge (sed price) can indicate infection; it really is constant with Dressler syndrome.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This painless, quick take a look at facts electric signals inside the coronary heart thru wires attached to the pores and skin. Certain adjustments within the electric signals can indicate stress on the coronary heart. But these adjustments can exist after coronary heart surgery, so the outcomes of other checks are needed to diagnose Dressler syndrome.

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can help discover fluid around the coronary heart or lungs. It also can help rule out different causes for the fluid, consisting of pneumonia.

  • Echocardiogram. Sound waves produce a picture of the heart, which can show if fluid is amassing round it.

  • Cardiac MRI. This test uses sound waves to create still or moving photographs of how blood flows through the heart. This test can display thickening of the pericardium.

Treatment Dressler syndrome

Your healthcare company can deal with Dressler’s syndrome with medications.

Anti-inflammatory capsules can reduce your ache and inflammation. The main remedy is commonly both aspirin or different non-steroidal anti inflammatory capsules (NSAIDs) along with ibuprofen or naproxen. 

The dreams of treatment for Dressler syndrome are to control pain and reduce inflammation. Treatment may additionally involve medicines and, if complications occur, surgical procedure.


The important treatment for Dressler syndrome is medicinal drug to reduce inflammation, such as nonsteroidal anti inflammatory pills (NSAIDs) together with:

  • Aspirin

  • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others)

  • Colchicine (Colcrys, Gloperba, Mitgare)

If Dressler syndrome occurs after a heart assault, normally aspirin is preferred over different NSAIDs.

Indomethacin also may be given.

If the medications do not assist, the next step is probably corticosteroids. These powerful immune device suppressants can reduce inflammation associated with Dressler syndrome.

Corticosteroids could have critical aspect results and may interfere with the recuperation of broken coronary heart tissue after a heart assault or surgical treatment. For those motives, corticosteroids are generally used simplest while different remedies do not work.

Treating complications

Complications of Dressler syndrome can require more-invasive remedies, such as:

  • Draining excess fluids. For cardiac tamponade, treatment might be a process (pericardiocentesis) in which a needle or small tube (catheter) is used to cast off the excess fluid. The technique is typically done using a nearby anesthetic.

  • Removing the pericardium. For constrictive pericarditis, remedy might contain surgical operation to do away with the pericardium (pericardiectomy).

Preparing for your appointment

If you're being seen within the emergency room for chest ache, you might be asked:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • How bad is your chest pain on a scale of 1 to 10?

  • Does anything worsen symptoms? For example, does it hurt more when you take a deep breath?

  • Where is the pain? Does it go anywhere beyond your chest?

  • Have you recently had a heart attack, heart surgery or blunt trauma to your chest?

  • Do you have a history of heart disease?

  • What medications do you take?

General summary 

  1. Dressler syndrome is a rare form of acute hypertension that occurs most commonly in young women who have just given birth People with this disorder experience rapid and severe increases in blood pressure and may develop symptoms that include stroke transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) heart attack or kidney failure The latter can occur within hours of the initial spike in blood pressure.

Dressler Syndrome :Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

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