hrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count): Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

What is Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count)?

Thrombocytopenia (THROM-bo-sigh-toe-PEE-ne-ah) happens when your blood platelet count number is low. Platelets also are called thrombocytes. This type of blood mobile clumps collectively to shape blood clots to help stop bleeding at the web site of a cut or wound. Another name for a blood clot is thrombus.

Bone marrow is the tender, spongy tissue anterior bones that make all blood cells along with platelets. People who have thrombocytopenia don’t have sufficient platelets to form a blood clot. If you get a reduced or different damage, you could bleed an excessive amount of and the bleeding can be tough to forestall.

In children, acute immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is exceptionally commonTrusted Source, and it can broaden after a viral contamination, together with chickenpox. In different instances, the condition is durable. It may additionally stem from the usage of medications or a genetic mutation.

If a baby has acute ITP, they commonly get better within 6 monthsTrusted Source, and if the circumstance is slight, they may now not want any treatment.

What is Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count)?
Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count)

Thrombocytopenia is a situation wherein the platelets (also referred to as thrombocytes) are low in variety, that may result in bleeding problems.

Platelets are a form of blood cellular which can be essential for helping blood to clot. When you cut your self and the wound bleeds, platelets clump collectively on the website online of the wound to forestall the bleeding.

Platelets can be low in quantity if the body isn't always making enough of them, if they're being destroyed, or if they may be trapped inside the spleen. The spleen is an organ that acts as a clear out of the blood and sits in the abdomen, below the ribs on the left.

Thrombocytopenia is more common in kids than adults, but it is nevertheless very uncommon. In youngsters it typically is going away by itself. In many adults it no longer gets better but it usually does not want any remedy.

  1. Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

  1. Heart

  2. Arteries

  3. Veins

  4. Blood vessels

Medical terms

  • Thrombocytopenia is a situation in which you have a low blood platelet. Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless blood cells that help blood clot. Platelets forestall bleeding through clumping and forming plugs in blood vessel accidents.
  • Thrombocytopenia would possibly arise as a result of a bone marrow disease together with leukemia or an immune system problem. Or it may be an aspect of taking medications. It impacts both kids and adults.
  • Thrombocytopenia may be mild and have few symptoms or signs and symptoms. In uncommon cases, the variety of platelets may be so low that dangerous inner bleeding occurs. Treatment alternatives are to be had.
  • Thrombocytopenia can have an effect on people of every age, race and genders. For unknown reasons, about five% of pregnant girls broaden slight thrombocytopenia right before childbirth.
  • Thrombocytopenia is a condition which causes a low count of platelets, the cells that help the blood to clot. It can be caused by autoimmune disorders such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, bone marrow diseases such as leukemia or myelodysplasia and certain medications.

Pediatric thrombocytopenia is a condition in which there are low levels of platelets in the blood Cancer autoimmune disorders and immune system problems can lead to pediatric thrombocytopenia Children with this condition normally have no symptoms so pediatricians look for signs of bleeding during routine exams If a child shows signs of the condition doctors will do tests to determine the cause and may prescribe medications to increase platelet counts.

Types of thrombocytopenia

The three main classes of thrombocytopenia are:

  • Platelet destruction such as with an auto-antibody that attaches to the platelet surface.

  • Platelet sequestration such as in someone with a large spleen or with liver disease.

  • Decreased platelet production as occurs in certain bone marrow diseases.

How low do platelets have to be for thrombocytopenia?

According to the American Society of Hematology “Normal platelet levels are between 150 and 400 billion cells per liter.” Thrombocytopenia is diagnosed when the platelet count falls below 50 billion cells per liter The cause of thrombocytopenia can vary depending on the underlying disorder but it often includes infections cancers and autoimmune disorders

Symptoms Thrombocytopenia

Some humans with slight instances of thrombocytopenia don’t have symptoms. Often, one of the first symptoms is a cut or nosebleed that won’t stop bleeding.

Thrombocytopenia signs and symptoms may include:

  • Easy or excessive bruising (purpura)

  • Superficial bleeding into the skin that appears as a rash of pinpoint-sized reddish-purple spots (petechiae), usually on the lower legs

  • Prolonged bleeding from cuts

  • Bleeding from your gums or nose

  • Blood in urine or stools

  • Unusually heavy menstrual flows

  • Fatigue

  • Enlarged spleen

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia in children 

One of the most telling symptoms is patches of bruising or purple areas of skin.

Additional symptoms include:

  • tiny red, rash-like spots

  • bleeding freely

  • bruising easily

  • having blood blisters in mouth

  • having blood in urine

  • heavy menstrual bleeding, in adolescents

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your medical doctor when you have signs and symptoms of thrombocytopenia that fear you.

Bleeding that might not prevent a medical emergency. Seek on the spot help for bleeding that can't be managed by way of the same old first-aid strategies, together with making use of stress to the location.

If you have low platelet count your doctor will recommend that you take a medicine called G-CSF (Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor) This medication encourages the bone marrow to make more platelets Your doctor may also give you another medication called Epogen which is made from your own blood It helps increase the number of stem cells in the bone marrow and increases the amount of red blood cells that are produced by your body

Causes Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia or low platelet count is a blood disorder in which the number of platelets in the blood is lower than normal Platelets are small cells that play an important role in blood clotting by forming clots at the site of cuts and scratches With thrombocytopenia bleeding may occur more easily because there are too few platelets to clot the blood Symptoms include easy bruising or bleeding from cuts or scrapes nosebleeds and bleeding gums It may also be associated with certain diseases such as lupus erythematosus viral infections and cancer.

This is a condition where there are fewer platelets in the blood than normal Platelets play an essential role in holding the body's blood together and they help to control bleeding There are two main causes to thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia can be severe with very low platelet counts that may cause spontaneous internal bleeding or even death However mild thrombocytopenia is more common and does not usually cause problems In any case you should see your doctor if you have a sudden or prolonged drop in your platelet count or if you're concerned about your overall health.

Thrombocytopenia means you have fewer than one hundred fifty,000 platelets consistent with microliter circulating blood. Because every platelet lives most effectively for about 10 days, your frame usually renews your platelet delivery continually by way of producing new platelets to your bone marrow.

Thrombocytopenia rarely is inherited; or it is able to be resulting from a number of medicines or situations. Whatever the cause, circulating platelets are decreased by using one or extra of the following strategies: trapping of platelets inside the spleen, reduced platelet production or expanded destruction of platelets.In uncommon times, thrombocytopenia is inherited, or passed from parent to child. More usually, certain problems, situations and medications motivate a low platelet count. These encompass:

  • Alcohol use disorder and alcoholism.

  • Autoimmune disease which causes ITP. ITP is sometimes associated with other autoimmune conditions such as lupus.

  • Bone marrow diseases, including aplastic anemia, leukemia, certain lymphomas and myelodysplastic syndromes.

  • Cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  • Enlarged spleen caused by cirrhosis of the liver or Gaucher disease. The enlarged spleen traps platelets and other blood cells and prevents them from circulating in the bloodstream.

  • Exposure to toxic chemicals, including arsenic, benzene and pesticides.

  • Medications to treat bacterial infections (antibiotics), seizures (epilepsy) and heart problems, or the blood thinner heparin.

  • Viruses, such as hepatitis C, CMV, EBV and HIV.

Trapped platelets

The spleen is a small organ approximately the size of your fist located simply underneath your rib cage at the left facet of your abdomen. Normally, your spleen works to combat infection and filter out undesirable fabric from your blood. An enlarged spleen — which can be due to some issues — can harbor too many platelets, which decreases the range of platelets in movement.

Decreased production of platelets

Platelets are produced on your bone marrow. Factors which could decrease platelet production include:

  • Leukemia and other cancers

  • Some types of anemia

  • Viral infections, such as hepatitis C or HIV

  • Chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy

  • Heavy alcohol consumption

Increased breakdown of platelets

Some situations can cause your body to expend or ruin platelets quicker than they are produced, leading to a shortage of platelets in your bloodstream. Examples of such conditions consist of:

  • Pregnancy. Thrombocytopenia because of being pregnant is typically slight and improves quickly after childbirth.

  • Immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, motivate this kind. The body's immune device mistakenly assaults and destroys platelets. If the precise reason of this situation is not acknowledged, it's known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. This kind more regularly influences children.

  • Bacteria in the blood. Severe bacterial infections concerning the blood (bacteremia) can break platelets.

  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. This is a rare condition that happens whilst small blood clots all at once form for the duration of your frame, using up massive numbers of platelets.

  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome. This rare disorder causes a sharp drop in platelets, destruction of red blood cells and impairs kidney characteristics.

  • Medications. Certain medicines can lessen the number of platelets to your blood. Sometimes a drug confuses the immune system and causes it to ruin platelets. Examples include heparin, quinine, sulfa-containing antibiotics and anticonvulsants.

How can I increase my platelets in 2 days?

Platelets are a type of blood cell that plays an important role in the body's ability to coagulate or clot blood Your bone marrow produces platelets which circulate throughout your bloodstream When you cut yourself your platelets help form a plug that stops the bleeding They also help stop internal bleeding by plugging damaged blood vessels and promoting new tissue growth at the site of an injury.

How can I raise my platelet count fast?

To raise your platelet count fast you want to eat foods that are rich in vitamin C such as peppers and citrus fruits Vitamin C is an antioxidant which helps increase the number of platelets in your blood You also need to avoid sugar and stress as sugar can lower your bodies ability to produce more blood cells Stress also has a negative impact on your overall health.

What medications increase platelets?

Platelets are tiny irregularly shaped blood cells that play a key role in the body’s normal clotting process Your platelet count is an important indicator of how well your body is healing itself from injuries and other medical problems High platelet counts are associated with serious conditions such as leukemia infection or liver disease If you have a high platelet count your doctor may want to check for these conditions and then treat them accordingly.

Can antibiotics increase platelets?

Antibiotics do not increase platelets so an antibiotic is not the solution to a low platelet count In fact taking antibiotics when you don’t need them can cause other health problems such as C diff infections and allergic reactions If your doctor has prescribed one or more antibiotics for you make sure that they are only taken when necessary and for the correct duration of time.

Does amoxicillin reduce platelets?

Amoxicillin is a prescription antibiotic that fights bacteria Amoxicillin works by preventing bacteria from multiplying which prevents the infection from getting worse Because amoxicillin fights bacteria it can make infections caused by viruses worse.

What antibiotics affect platelets?

Taking some antibiotics can actually cause your platelets to work less effectively For example tetracycline and doxycycline can decrease the ability of platelets to stick together which could make you more likely to have a bleeding episode or form a clot in your blood vessels.

  • Pediatric thrombocytopenia is a rare blood disorder that occurs in children usually between the ages of two and eight It involves an abnormally low level of platelets in the platelet-forming cells (megakaryocytes) that circulate in the blood Platelets are necessary for normal blood clotting When there are too few platelets excessive bleeding bruising and susceptibility to bruising can occur.

How is pediatric ITP treated?

If your child has been diagnosed with ITP there are several treatment options available to you The most common treatment is an injection of a drug called corticosteroids This drug suppresses the immune system’s ability to produce platelets and allows platelets to be produced by the bone marrow again Other medications that suppress the immune system may also be used in treating ITP including chlorambucil and splenectomy (removing the spleen) In select cases blood transfusions may be necessary if there is not enough platelet production or if your child has experienced a significant drop in his or her platelet count.

How do you increase platelets in children?

Platelets are cell fragments that help blood clot The body produces platelets constantly but sometimes more may be needed For example a child who has been injured or is undergoing a medical procedure may need platelets Platelets also can be administered prophylactically to prevent bleeding in patients who have had recent surgeries or who take medications that lower the platelet count.

Which fruits increase platelets?

Platelets are small disk-shaped cells in the blood that help form clots to stop bleeding Platelets are important because they prevent excessive bleeding and bruising As you age your body produces fewer platelet cells Consuming certain fruits can help boost your platelet count and help you maintain healthy blood flow through your veins.

Does milk increase platelet count?

Like most foods and nutrients milk is a healthy part of a balanced diet but it doesn't necessarily increase platelet count The claim that drinking milk helps with platelet levels seems to stem from the idea that calcium increases bone density and therefore the more calcium in your body the higher your platelet count will be But this theory doesn't hold up because there are many foods rich in calcium and other nutrients that don't have any effect on platelet counts.

Complications hrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count)

Dangerous internal bleeding can occur when your platelet is counted and falls beneath 10,000 platelets in keeping with the microliter. Though rare, severe thrombocytopenia can cause bleeding into the brain, which can be fatal.

Diagnosis Thrombocytopenia

You may not want a remedy if a low platelet dependence isn’t causing considerable problems. Often, healthcare companies can enhance platelet counts by treating the underlying motive. This technique may contain changing your medications.

To diagnose a low platelet count, a medical doctor may also start by asking a few questions and appearing for a physical exam. The questions might cover symptoms, family history, and medications. The exam will assess skin rashes and bruising.

A laboratory platelet dependent will affirm the prognosis, displaying the exact concentration of platelets in the blood. The medical doctor is likely to perform different blood tests at the identical time.

The following can be used to determine whether you have thrombocytopenia:

  • Blood test. An entire blood depend determines the wide variety of blood cells, which includes platelets, in a sample of your blood.

  • Physical exam, including a complete medical history. Your medical doctor will look for signs of bleeding underneath your pores and skin and feel your abdomen to peer if your spleen is enlarged. He or she will be able to additionally ask you about ailments you've got had and the styles of medications and dietary supplements you have currently taken.

Your medical doctor would possibly recommend other tests and tactics to determine the motive of your condition, relying on your signs and symptoms and signs.

Treatment Thrombocytopenia

Treatment for thrombocytopenia depends on what caused it and whether you have any signs. If you have got mild thrombocytopenia, you could not need treatment. An absolutely ordinary platelet remember isn't always essential to save you critical bleeding, in spite of critical cuts or accidents.

If you have serious bleeding or a high threat of complications, you can need drugs or processes. Also, you will want to treat the situation that is inflicting the low platelet count.

If a reaction to a remedy is causing the low platelet matter, your issuer may prescribe some other remedy. Most human beings recover after the preliminary remedy has been stopped. For HIT, stopping the heparin isn't sufficient. Often, you may want another medicinal drug to save you blood clotting.

If your immune system is causing the low platelet count, your provider may also prescribe drugs to suppress the immune gadget.

Thrombocytopenia can last for days or years. People with moderate thrombocytopenia may not need remedy. For folks that do need a remedy for thrombocytopenia, the remedy relies upon its reason and how extreme it is.

If your thrombocytopenia is as a result of an underlying circumstance or a medicine, addressing that purpose may cure it. For example, if you have heparin-precipitated thrombocytopenia, your doctor can prescribe a distinctive blood-thinning drug.

Other treatments might involve:

  • Blood or platelet transfusions. If your platelet stage turns too low, your medical doctor can update misplaced blood with transfusions of packed purple blood cells or platelets.

  • Medications. If your situation is associated with an immune device hassle, your health practitioner would possibly prescribe pills to enhance your platelet count number. The first-preference drug is probably a corticosteroid. If that does not paint, stronger medicines can be used to suppress your immune system.

  • Surgery. If other remedies do not help, your physician would possibly suggest surgical operation to put off your spleen (splenectomy).

  • Plasma exchange. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura can bring about a scientific emergency requiring plasma change.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you have thrombocytopenia, try to:

  • Avoid activities that could cause injury. Ask your physician which activities are secure for you. Contact sports activities, consisting of boxing, martial arts and soccer, deliver a high threat of injury.

  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. Alcohol slows the production of platelets to your body. Ask your medical doctor whether it is OK as a way to drink alcohol.

  • Use caution with over-the-counter medications. Over-the-counter ache medicines, including aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) can prevent platelets from running properly.

Preparing for your appointment

Start by seeing your number one care medical doctor, who can manage maximum instances of thrombocytopenia. In positive situations, he or she would possibly refer you to a consultant in blood diseases (hematologist).

Here's a few statistics to help you get geared up on your appointment.

What you can do

When you are making the appointment, ask if there is whatever you want to do earlier, together with restricting your weight-reduction plan.

Make a list of:

  • Warning signs you've noticed, Such as any unusual bruising or bleeding or any rashes, and when they commenced

  • Key personal information, Such as latest ailments or clinical approaches which include a blood transfusion, predominant stresses or current life modifications

  • All medications, vitamins and other supplements you take, including doses

  • Questions to ask your doctor

Take along a family member or friend, if possible, that will help you remember the statistics you get hold of.

For thrombocytopenia, questions to ask your doctor include:

  • How many platelets do I have in my blood?

  • Is my platelet count dangerously low?

  • What is causing my thrombocytopenia?

  • Do I need more tests?

  • Is my condition likely temporary or chronic?

  • What are my treatment options?

  • What will happen if I do nothing?

  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?

  • Are there printed materials I can have? What websites do you recommend?

General summary

  1. A person who has thrombocytopenia should monitor the bleeding time as this will determine if there is a need for a blood transfusion If an aspirin overdose is suspected vitamin K should be given to help reverse the effects of the aspirin In cases where bleeding is due to a medication that can cause thrombocytopenia switching medications may be necessary If the cause of thrombocytopenia is related to autoimmune hemolytic anemia or other forms of chronic inflammation steroids may be used to suppress these immune responses and allow platelets to form normally again.
  1. Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) is a condition that happens when you have fewer platelets than normal in your blood These platelets are small disk-shaped cells that help your blood clot. Low platelet count may happen because of certain medicines or medical conditions.

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