Mitral Valve Disease : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What Is Mitral Valve Disease(MVP)?

The mitral valve is located in the left aspect of your coronary heart between  chambers: the left atrium and the left ventricle. The valve works to maintain blood flowing nicely in one course from the left atrium to the left ventricle. It also prevents blood from flowing backward.

Mitral valve disease occurs while the mitral valve doesn’t work nicely, allowing blood to glide backward into the left atrium. As a result, your heart no longer pumps sufficient blood out of the left ventricular chamber to deliver your body with oxygen-stuffed blood. This can cause signs and symptoms including fatigue and shortness of breath. However, many people with mitral valve sickness revel in no signs and symptoms.

What Is Mitral Valve Disease(MVP)?
Mitral Valve Disease

If left untreated, mitral valve disease can lead to critical, existence-threatening complications which include heart failure or irregular heartbeats, called arrhythmias.

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a circumstance wherein your mitral valve bows or flops returned into your left atrium. That’s why it’s sometimes referred to as “floppy valve syndrome.” This floppiness may also prevent your valve from closing as tightly because it needs to.

MVP is a not unusual form of mitral valve disease, and frequently it’s innocent. Many human beings haven't any signs and don’t even recognize they have it. That’s due to the fact their valves can nevertheless feature properly. But some humans with slight or extreme prolapse have symptoms and might want treatment.

The major complication of MVP is mitral regurgitation. This manner of blood leaks the incorrect manner via your valve. MVP is one of the most commonplace causes of mitral regurgitation. If the leak is severe enough, you can want a surgical procedure or a process to assist your valve work as it ought to.

  1. Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

  1. Heart

  2. Arteries

  3. Veins

  4. Blood vessels

Medical terms

  • Mitral valve disease is a heart condition in which the mitral valve becomes thickened or deformed typically causing it to leak Mitral valve leakage can be caused by physical trauma (due to a car accident for example) rheumatic fever and other conditions It is also the most common cause of otherwise unexplained symptoms such as fatigue and difficulty breathing.
  • Mitral valve disease is a disorder that affects the heart's mitral valve. The mitral valve is located between the upper left atrium and the left ventricle. It allows blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle so it can pump throughout the body.
  • The mitral valve is a valve that we could blood waft from one chamber of the heart, the left atrium, to another known as the left ventricle. In mitral valve prolapse, part of the mitral valve slips backward loosely into the chamber called the left atrium. This occurs when the main heart muscle, known as the left ventricle, squeezes for the duration of every heartbeat. Mitral valve prolapse differs from mitral valve stenosis. In mitral valve stenosis, the mitral valve is stiff and constricted.

In mitral valve prolapse, the valve slips backward due to the strange size of or damage to the mitral valve tissues. For the general public with mitral valve prolapse, the reason is unknown.

Mitral valve prolapse can run in households. It also can be resulting from conditions in which cartilage is abnormal (connective tissue disease). Nearly 8 million humans inside the U.S. Have mitral valve prolapse.

Mitral valve ailment is a hassle with the valve located between the left coronary heart chambers (left atrium and left ventricle).

Mitral valve disease includes:

  • Mitral valve regurgitation. The mitral valve flaps (leaflets) won't close tightly, causing blood to leak backward.

  • Mitral valve stenosis. The flaps of the mitral valve turn out to be thick or stiff, and they can fuse together. This narrows the valve commencing, which reduces blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.

Treatment for mitral valve sickness depends on the severity of the situation and whether it is worsening. Sometimes, surgical treatment is suggested to repair or replace the mitral valve.

Types Mitral valve disease(MVP)

Myxomatous degeneration of the valve, also referred to as "floppy valve" or mitral valve prolapse, is the maximum commonplace circumstance that requires mitral valve repair. It takes place while the mitral valve leaflets turn out to be floppy or unfastened and the valve does not open and close well. In maximum cases, it does not now purpose signs and symptoms and therefore remedy is not required.

However, in greater intense cases, the circumstance may additionally reason mitral valve regurgitation, wherein the blood leaks backwards into the lungs. This may additionally result in heart dilation, in which the heart's walls grow to be stretched and weakened. As a result, coronary heart rhythm problems may additionally occur, consisting of atrial traumatic inflammation. Almost all of the leaky valves caused by myxomatous degeneration may be effectively repaired with surgery.

  1. Mitral valve stenosis

Mitral valve stenosis is a narrowing of the opening of the mitral valve, which can prevent the valve from establishing and ultimately usually, decreasing the amount of blood float via the coronary heart. Over time, stenosis can motivate high blood pressure in the left atrium and the lungs, which could lead to respiratory problems.

  1. Mitral valve regurgitation

    Regurgitation takes place while blood leaks from the valve and flows backward into your left atrium when the left ventricle compresses.

Symptoms Mitral valve disease(MVP)

Many people with mitral valve prolapse no longer have signs and symptoms and it may simplest be spotted at some point of a heart scan (echocardiogram) finished for some other purpose.

Some human beings with mitral valve disease may not have symptoms for decades, if in any respect.

Signs and signs and symptoms of mitral valve ailment can include:

  • Fatigue

  • Irregular heart sound (heart murmur)

  • Irregular heartbeat

  • Shortness of breath

When to see a doctor

If you have a coronary heart murmur or develop different symptoms or symptoms of mitral valve sickness, your fitness care provider would possibly propose that you go to a doctor that specializes in heart sicknesses (cardiologist).

Causes Mitral valve disease(MVP)

The mitral valve is one of four heart valves It's located between the left atrium and left ventricle If this valve doesn't close properly blood may leak backward into the lungs causing pulmonary edema This is a common cause of congestive heart failure Some people are born with a condition that causes their mitral valve to leak or become damaged over time while others develop it later in life.

Mitral valve prolapse is resulting from valve tissue weakness. This condition is called myxomatous degeneration. It’s not usually clear what causes this tissue weak spot. In some cases, it could be passed down inside households. Mitral valve prolapse has been associated with several genes, such as FLNA, DCHS1, DZIP1 and PLD1.

Some connective tissue problems might also cause myxomatous degeneration. These encompass Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

To understand the reasons for mitral valve ailment, it is useful to realize how the heart works.

The mitral valve is considered one of four valves inside the coronary heart that maintain blood flowing inside the proper direction. Each valve has flaps (leaflets) that open and near as soon as at some stage in every heartbeat. If a valve does not open or near properly, blood goes with the flow through the coronary heart to the body may be reduced.

In mitral valve regurgitation, the flaps don't close tightly. Blood flows backward when the valve is closed, making it harder for the coronary heart to paint properly.

In mitral valve stenosis, the valve establishes narrows. The coronary heart now must work harder to force blood via the smaller valve opening. If the outlet within the valve becomes small enough, it is able to reduce blood waft from the left atrium to the left ventricle.

Mitral valve disorder has many causes. Some styles of mitral valve disorder may be present at birth (congenital coronary heart defect).

Mitral valve sickness might also broaden later in life (obtained). For instance, mitral valve stenosis is frequently caused by rheumatic fever. This fever is a difficulty of a strep infection that can have an effect on the heart. When this takes place, it's called rheumatic mitral valve disease.

Other reasons of acquired mitral valve disease consist of:

  • Other heart conditions

  • Infection

  • Age-related changes

  • Autoimmune disease, such as lupus

Risk factors Mitral valve disease(MVP)

Mitral valve disease is a condition that occurs when the mitral valve of the heart doesn't close properly allowing blood to flow in the wrong direction This causes the left atrium and left ventricle to become enlarged leading to congestive heart failure (CHF) The most common cause of mitral valve disease is rheumatic fever an infection caused by streptococci bacteria that leads to inflammation of the heart muscle Other factors that can lead to this disease include mitral valve prolapse which occurs when the valve leaflets flail back and forth and leak; bacterial endocarditis which is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves; carcinoid syndrome a disorder that occurs when cancer.

Several things can increase the risk of mitral valve disease, including:

  • Older age

  • Certain infections that affect the heart

  • Heart attack and some types of heart disease

  • Use of certain drugs

  • Heart condition present at birth (congenital heart defect)

  • Radiation to the chest

Complications Mitral Valve Disease

Mitral valve disorder can cause many headaches. Severe mitral valve regurgitation, as an instance, causes the coronary heart to work more difficult, which can cause the left ventricle to make bigger and the heart muscle to weaken.

Other headaches of mitral valve disease may also include:

  • Irregular and often rapid heart rate (atrial fibrillation)

  • High blood pressure in the blood vessels in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension)

  • Blood clots

  • Congestive heart failure

  • Stroke

Can a mitral valve be repaired without open heart surgery?

  • Yes not only can a mitral valve be repaired without open heart surgery but it is possible to repair the entire heart's four valves without invasive surgery The most common procedures are called transcatheter valve repair and percutaneous valve replacement Transcatheter valve repair involves inserting a small catheter into the heart through a small incision in the groin or arm The catheter delivers a specially designed device that stabilizes and repairs the valve In transcatheter valve replacement the surgeon uses a larger catheter to remove the damaged valve and replace it with an artificial one For more information on these procedures visit.
  • Yes valve disease can be treated The standard treatment is to replace the diseased valve with a mechanical or tissue (biological) valve Mechanical valves are made of metal and last for years Tissue valves are made of human or animal tissue and must be replaced more frequently after about 10 years.

How serious is mitral valve surgery?

Mitral valve surgery is a serious procedure that involves making an incision in the body to repair or replace the mitral valve Also known as open-heart surgery mitral valve procedures are performed on adults through large openings in the sternum and on children through small incisions around the chest The recovery time following mitral valve surgery varies based on the procedure performed and your overall health.

How can I strengthen my heart valve naturally?

There are several herbs that can be used to naturally strengthen the heart valve These herbs include: Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Cayenne (Capsicum annum) Oats (Avena sativa) Prickly ash bark (Zanthoxylum americanum).

Prevention Mitral Valve Disease

There’s no unique manner to prevent mitral valve prolapse. But you can reduce your hazard of received heart valve disorder (valve issues that arise as you grow old). Some tips encompass:

  • Build bodily hobbies and planned exercise into your everyday habitual. Be certain to test together with your issuer about any exercising barriers.

  • Quit smoking and using tobacco products.

  • Follow a heart-healthy eating plan.

  • Keep a healthy weight.

  • Manage conditions like excessive blood stress and diabetes. Take medicines as prescribed.

  • Manage pressure but feel nice to you. This ought to include yoga, taking deep breaths and speakme with others, amongst other techniques.

Diagnosis Mitral valve disease(MVP)

A medical doctor might also suspect mitral valve prolapse after taking note of someone's coronary heart with a stethoscope. The unusual movement of the mitral valve can make an awesome sound, referred to as a "click on." If mitral regurgitation is also present, a physician may additionally pay attention to a heart murmur resulting from the backward go with the flow of blood.

Definite analysis of mitral valve prolapse calls for an echocardiogram, that is an ultrasound of the heart. A doctor can watch the peculiar valve movement on a video of the thrashing heart. Mitral regurgitation, if present, may also be seen with an echocardiogram.

To diagnose mitral valve ailment, which includes mitral valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation, a healthcare company will usually carry out a physical examination and ask questions about your clinical history.

The health care issuer will pay attention for a coronary heart murmur, a sign of a mitral valve circumstance.

Tests to diagnose mitral valve disease may additionally encompass:

  • Echocardiogram. Sound waves are used to supply video photographs of the coronary heart in movement. An echocardiogram gives a better look at the mitral valve and how well it is operating. An echocardiogram can help in the analysis of congenital mitral valve disease, rheumatic mitral valve disease and other heart valve situations.
    Sometimes, a transesophageal echocardiogram may be finished to get a closer observation of the mitral valve. In this sort of echocardiogram, a small transducer attached to the give up of a tube is inserted down the tube main from the mouth to the belly (esophagus).

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). Wires (electrodes) attached to pads at the pores and skin degree electrical signals from the coronary heart. An ECG can discover enlarged chambers of the heart, coronary heart disorder and abnormal heart rhythms.

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can show the circumstance of the heart and lungs. It can reveal whether the coronary heart is enlarged, which can be a sign of positive varieties of heart valve sickness.

  • Cardiac MRI. This takes a look at magnetic fields and radio waves to create designated pics of the coronary heart. A cardiac MRI might be finished to decide the severity of mitral valve disorder.

  • Exercise tests or stress tests. These tests regularly contain taking walks on a treadmill or using a stationary motorbike while the heart is monitored. Exercise assessments assist monitor how the heart responds to bodily hobbies and whether valve disorder symptoms occur in the course of exercising. If you're unable to workout, you are probably given medications that mimic the effect of workout on your heart.

  • Cardiac catheterization. A healthcare company threads a skinny tube (catheter) via a blood vessel inside the arm or groin to an artery within the coronary heart and injects dye via the catheter. This makes the heart arteries display up greater sincerely on an X-ray.
    Cardiac catheterization is not often used to diagnose mitral valve ailment, but it can be used if different checks haven't recognized the situation or to check to peer if coronary artery disease is present.

After testing confirms an analysis of mitral or other coronary heart valve disorder, your health care company may let you know the level of sickness. Staging allows deciding the maximum appropriate remedy.

The degree of coronary heart valve ailment depends on many things, including symptoms, ailment severity, the structure of the valve or valves, and blood drift thru the coronary heart and lungs.

Heart valve sickness is staged into four basic companies:

  • Stage A: At risk. Risk factors for heart valve disease are present.

  • Stage B: Progressive. Valve disease is mild or moderate. There are no heart valve symptoms.

  • Stage C: Asymptomatic severe. There are no heart valve symptoms, but the valve disease is severe.

  • Stage D: Symptomatic severe. Heart valve disease is severe and is causing symptoms.

Treatment Mitral valve disease(MVP)

Treatment for mitral valve disorder won't be essential, depending on the severity of your condition and signs. If your case is severe enough, there are 3 viable treatments or an aggregate of remedies which could accurately reflect your circumstances.

Mitral valve ailment treatment relies upon the signs, the severity of the circumstance, and whether or not the condition is worsening.

A health practitioner trained in coronary heart disorder (heart specialist) typically takes care of people with mitral valve ailment. Treatment of mitral valve sickness may encompass monitoring the circumstance with normal comply-with-up visits. If you have got mitral valve ailment, you is probably requested to:

  • Make healthy lifestyle changes

  • Take medications to treat symptoms

  • Take blood thinners to reduce the chance of blood clots when you have a positive abnormal coronary heart rhythm known as atrial traumatic inflammation

Surgery or other procedures

A diseased or damaged mitral valve might ultimately want to be repaired or changed, even though no signs are a gift. Surgery for mitral valve sickness includes mitral valve restore and mitral valve substitute.

If you need surgical treatment for some other heart condition, a health practitioner might carry out mitral valve restore or replacement at the identical time.

Surgeons at some medical centers perform robotic-assisted coronary heart surgical operation, a kind of minimally invasive heart surgery wherein robotic hands are used to conduct the system.

Mitral valve repair

During mitral valve repair surgery, the doctor might:

  • Patch holes in a heart valve

  • Reconnect the valve flaps

  • Remove excess tissue from the valve so that the flaps can close tightly

  • Repair the structure of the mitral valve by replacing cords that support it

  • Separate valve leaflets that have fused

Other mitral valve repair procedures include:

  • Annuloplasty. A health practitioner tightens or reinforces the ring around the valve (annulus). Annuloplasty can be performed with other techniques to repair a coronary heart valve.

  • Valvuloplasty. This catheter manner is used to repair a mitral valve with a narrowed opening. Valvuloplasty might be executed even in case you do not have symptoms. The healthcare professional inserts a catheter with a balloon at the tip into an artery within the arm or groin and publishes the catheter to the mitral valve. The balloon is inflated, widening the mitral valve opening. The balloon is deflated, and the catheter and balloon are removed.

  • Mitral valve clip. In this technique, a health care professional courses a catheter with a clip on its end to the mitral valve through an artery inside the groin. The clip is used to restore a torn or leaky mitral valve leaflet. This system is an alternative for people who've intense mitral valve regurgitation or who are not a great candidate for mitral valve surgical treatment.

Mitral valve replacement

During mitral valve replacement, the heart general practitioner gets rid of the mitral valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve made from cow, pig or human coronary heart tissue (organic tissue valve).

In some instances, a heart catheter process can be done to insert a substitute valve into a biological tissue valve that is now not operating properly. This is known as a valve-in-valve procedure.

If you had mitral valve substitution with a mechanical valve, you will need to take blood thinners for the rest of your lifestyles to prevent blood clots. Biological tissue valves smash down (degenerate) through the years and typically need to get replaced.

  1. Heart valve transplantation

Lifestyle and home remedies

You'll have regular follow-up appointments along with your fitness care issuer to reveal your condition.

It's also vital to make coronary heart-healthful life-style modifications, which includes:

  • Eating a heart-healthy diet. Eat a selection of fruits and veggies, low-fats or fat-free dairy merchandise, fowl, fish, and complete grains. Avoid saturated and trans fat, and extra salt and sugar.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight. If you're overweight or have weight problems, your fitness care company may propose that you shed pounds.

  • Getting regular physical activity. Aim to consist of approximately half-hour of physical pastime, along with brisk walks, into your day by day health recurring.

  • Managing stress. Find approaches to assist manage your stress, such as via rest sports, meditation, physical activity, and spending time with family and buddies.

  • Avoiding tobacco. If you smoke, end. Ask your health care issuer about assets that will help you stop smoking. Joining an assistance organization can be helpful.

If you have got mitral valve disease and need to come to be pregnant, it is essential to speak with a fitness care company first. A fitness care company can talk which medications are safe to take in the course of being pregnant, and whether or not a system is wanted to deal with a coronary heart valve condition earlier than being pregnant. Women with coronary heart valve ailment normally require close monitoring via a fitness card issuer during being pregnant.

Coping and support

If you have got mitral valve disease, here are a few steps which could help you manage your situation:

  • Take medications as prescribed. Take your medications as directed by your healthcare provider.

  • Get support. Having help out of your circle of relatives and pals lets you cope with your circumstances. Ask your health care provider to approximately assist businesses that may be beneficial.

  • Stay active. It's an awesome concept to live bodily active. Your health care provider can also provide you with hints about how plenty and what type of exercise is appropriate for you.

Preparing for your appointment

If you watch you have mitral valve disorder, make an appointment to see your health care issuer. Here's some facts that will help you put together your appointment.

What you can do

  • Be aware of pre-appointment restrictions. When you are making the appointment, ask if there may be something you want to do ahead.

  • Write down your symptoms, including any that seem unrelated to mitral valve disease.

  • Write down key personal information, Which includes a circle of relatives, history of heart sickness, and any main stresses or latest existence changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements you take.

  • Take a family member or friend along, If feasible. Someone who accompanies you may assist you recollect data you acquire.

  • Be prepared to discuss Your weight loss plan and exercising behavior. If you do not already eat nicely and exercise, be equipped to speak about challenges you may face in getting started out.

  • Write down questions to ask your healthcare provider.

For mitral valve disease, a few fundamental inquiries to ask your fitness care provider include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • What are other possible causes for my symptoms or condition?

  • What tests will I need?

  • What's the best treatment?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • If I need surgery, which surgeon do you recommend for heart valve surgery?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you several questions, including:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

General summary

  1. Mitral valve disease is a condition that occurs when the mitral valve of the heart doesn't close properly allowing blood to flow in the wrong direction This causes the left atrium and left ventricle to become enlarged leading to congestive heart failure (CHF) The most common cause of mitral valve disease is rheumatic fever an infection caused by streptococci bacteria that leads to inflammation of the heart muscle Other factors that can lead to this disease include mitral valve prolapse which occurs when the valve leaflets flail back and forth and leak; bacterial endocarditis which is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves; carcinoid syndrome a disorder that occurs when cancer.

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