Peripheral Nerve Tumors : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


What are Peripheral Nerve Tumors?

A neurofibroma is a type of tumor that forms soft bumps on or under the skin. It can develop anywhere in the body, but it is most common near major or minor nerves. This common tumor tends to form more centrally within the nerve. Sometimes it arises from several nerve bundles. Neurofibroma is a type of tumor that has a fibrous growth pattern.

If the tumor is pressing against nerves or growing within them, you may experience pain or numbness in the affected area. However, most people with tumors don't experience any symptoms at all.

Neurofibromas are usually non cancerous, but they can sometimes become cancerous.

What are Peripheral Nerve Tumors?
Peripheral Nerve Tumors

Neurological tumors are growths in or near the strands of tissue (nerves) that transmit signals from your brain to other parts of your body. These nerves control your muscles and help you do things like walk, blink, swallow, and pick things up.

Nerve Tumors can occur anywhere in the body. Most of them aren't cancerous, but they can cause pain, nerve damage, and loss of function in the affected area.

Treatment for peripheral nerve tumors usually includes surgery to remove the tumor. If the tumor can't be removed without damaging nearby healthy tissue and nerves, other treatments may be recommended.

Some types of peripheral nerve tumors occur. These tumors can grow within the nerves or press against them from the outside.

  1. Peripheral nervous system

  1. Nerves

  2. Cranial nerves

  3. Spinal nerves

  4. Ganglia

  5. Enteric nervous system

Medical terms

  • Peripheral nerve tumors (PNTs) fall into the broad class of soft-tissue tumors, and thence square measure managed by an outsized range of subdisciplines as well as cosmetic surgery, medicine, medical science, and surgical operation.
  • However, PNTs arise or square measure in close proximity to neural structures, therefore if not managed properly will result in vital medical specialty deficits, well on the far side the adjacent soft-tissue structures. To complicate matters additional, PNTs square measure comparatively rare, lack definitive imaging or alternative diagnostic modalities, have a comparatively giant medical diagnosis comprising transformation of any of the cellular components that represent a peripheral nerve, with a large type of clinical and biological manifestations, and association with predisposition syndromes. This chapter reviews the principles of designation, that embrace a case history for any predisposition syndrome like von Recklinghausen's disease (NF) sort one or NF2, an intensive centered and general physical examination, and tomography investigations, principal amongst that is resonance imaging. the foremost management ways, that embrace observation or surgical intervention, often increased with adjuvant treatment with radiation therapy and therapy, square measure reviewed. Intraoperative principles, geared toward minimizing the chance of operative medical specialty deficit, square measure shortly mentioned generally and specific to the most subtypes of PNT.

Peripheral nerve tumors are rare These formations occur in the peripheral nervous system — a network that extends from your spinal cord to other parts of your body This system is made up of nerves which are responsible for sending information to your brain and carrying out its commands throughout the body Peripheral nerve tumors tend to develop along one or more nerves often found at either the extremities (such as arms and legs) or around the spine.

What does a tumor on a nerve feel like?

People with neuromas experience sharp burning pain in the affected area The pain can be so severe that it affects a person's ability to walk and may lead to other problems such as headaches numbness and tingling in the toes or fingers It is common for people who have neuromas to experience these problems on both sides of their bodies.

Where are nerve tumors located?

Nerve tumors are usually benign (noncancerous) growths on the nerves but may be cancerous They can grow anywhere in the body where there are nerves.

Types Peripheral nerve tumors

  1. Acoustic neuroma

  2. Benign peripheral nerve tumor

  3. Desmoid tumors

  4. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

  5. Neurofibroma

  6. Neurofibromatosis

  7. Schwannoma

Symptoms Peripheral nerve tumors

The symptoms and signs of a peripheral nerve tumor develop because the tumor directly affects the main nerve or because it is pressing on nearby nerves, blood vessels, or tissues. As the tumor grows, it may become more likely to cause signs and symptoms, even if its size does not always determine this.

The signs and symptoms of peripheral nerve tumors can differ depending on where the tumors are located and which tissues they affect. They can include:

  • If you have a swelling or lump under your skin, it means you have a tumor.

  • Pain, tingling or numbness

  • If there is weakness or loss of function in the area that was injured, that means it is probably not going to heal on its own.

  • Dizziness or loss of balance

When to see a doctor

If you experience any of the following symptoms, see your doctor: a lump that is growing rapidly, fever, sore throat, cough.

Causes Peripheral nerve tumors

It's not clear why most peripheral nerve tumors develop. Some are likely due to inherited syndromes, such as neurofibromatosis (types 1 and 2) and schwannomatosis. Others may be caused by a faulty gene or by something that causes injury or surgery.

Risk factors Peripheral nerve tumors

Tumors in the peripheral nerves are more common in people who have certain characteristics.

  • Neurofibromatosis and schwannomatosis are diseases that affect the nervous system.Tumors can develop on or near the nerves throughout the body in these disorders. These tumors, which are often multiple, can cause a variety of symptoms and signs depending on their location. Most of these tumors are not cancerous.

  • A history of radiation treatment.If you were exposed to radiation, you are at an increased risk of developing peripheral nerve tumors in the years following the exposure.

Complications Peripheral Nerve Tumors

Peripheral nerve tumors can compress nerves which can lead to complications, some of which may be permanent.

  • The person might feel numbness or weakness in the area that was affected.

  • Loss of function in the affected area

  • Difficulties with balance

  • Pain

How are nerve tumors diagnosed?

Nerve tumors are typically diagnosed using two to three methods: symptoms, blood tests and imaging techniques In some cases a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. A biopsy is a procedure that involves taking a small amount of tissue from the tumor for examination under a microscope.

Can malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors be cured?

Yes malignant PNSTs are curable The 5-year survival rate is approximately 60% and depends on the size of the tumor its location and histological type (grades I to III) The most important step in treating malignant PNST is early diagnosis This can be achieved through a combination of clinical examination and MRI scans Since PNSTs progress quickly they require immediate treatment Surgery is followed by chemotherapy if needed Currently there is no standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced malignant PNST because it’s a rare condition that doesn’t have enough research behind it yet Doctors.

How common are peripheral nerve sheath tumors?

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are rare accounting for less than 1 percent of all primary tumors The most common type of peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a neurofibroma which affects about 0.4 out of every 100,000 people These benign tumors start in the nerves surrounding muscles and tend to be larger at birth but decrease in size until puberty when they can increase in size again Neurofibromas grow slowly and rarely become cancerous Schwannomas another type of peripheral nerve sheath tumor affect approximately 0.2 out of every 100,000 people and grow more quickly but do not.

Can a peripheral nerve sheath tumor be benign?

Unlike most other types of tumors which are usually malignant (cancerous) a PNS tumor can sometimes be benign Benign means that it is not cancer Most commonly they occur in young children A benign PNS tumor is called neurofibroma Neurofibroma grows along the nerve and may extend beyond it to form a mass in nearby fat or muscle tissue It tends to grow slowly over time and does not invade surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

How fast do nerve sheath tumors grow?

Symptoms are caused by the pressure of a growing nerve sheath tumor Patients may experience pain numbness tingling or weakness in a hand or foot depending on where the tumor is located Nerve sheath tumors can also cause difficulty with balance and walking Though they often occur on one side of the body first they can spread to both sides as they grow.

Can a nerve sheath tumor disappear?

Some sheath tumors also called neurilemmomas may be completely benign These do not require any treatment and may simply disappear over time Other sheath tumors are cancerous Since most sheath tumors are found on the face or neck they can easily be seen by a primary care physician or ENT specialist Tumors found elsewhere in the body must generally be removed surgically to prevent their growth or spread to other parts of the body.

Can nerve sheath be repaired?

Anything is possible if there is enough money The nerve sheath can be repaired but only in extreme cases A damaged nerve needs to be replaced with a graft that has been taken from another part of the body This requires surgery and promises long recovery time as well as other limitations (the donor site for the graft also will not work) But it's better than living with numbness or paralysis on one side of your body.

What percentage of nerve sheath tumors are benign?

It is often difficult to determine whether a nerve sheath tumor is benign or malignant An examination of the tumor and nearby lymph nodes by a pathologist can often give some indication as to the nature of the tumor but other tests must also be conducted Further testing may include imaging studies such as X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nerve conduction studies and biopsy A needle biopsy may have a high rate of false negative results for certain tumors especially those that are cellular rather than purely fibrous in nature; therefore many surgeons remove an entire section of affected nerves when conducting surgical biopsies After.

Prevention Peripheral Nerve Tumors

You can lessen your threat of neuropathy by means of treating current scientific troubles and adopting healthful residing habits. Here are some hints:

  • Manage your diabetes: If you've got diabetes, maintain your blood glucose stage inside the range encouraged through your doctor.

  • Take care of your feet: If you have diabetes or poor blood flow, it’s essential to check your feet every day. Look for sores, blisters, redness, calluses, or dry or cracking skin. Keep your toenails clipped (clip directly across the nail); observe lotion to easy, dry ft; and wear closed-toe, nicely-becoming footwear. Protect your feet from warmth and bloodlessness. Don’t walk barefoot.

  • Declutter your floors. Keep your flooring free of objects that could cause you to trip and fall. Make sure all electrical cords are tucked away alongside the baseboards of partitions and rooms are properly lit.

  • Stop smoking: Smoking constricts blood vessels that supply nutrients to nerves. Without proper vitamins, neuropathy symptoms can worsen.

  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Eat a balanced eating regimen, stay inside your ideal weight variety, exercise numerous times a week and hold alcoholic drinks to a minimum. These wholesome living guidelines preserve your muscle tissues sturdy and deliver your nerves with the oxygen and vitamins they want to stay wholesome.

  • Review your medications: Talk together with your physician or pharmacist approximately all the medicines and over the counter merchandise you're taking. Ask if any are known to reason or get worse neuropathy. If so, ask if an extraordinary medication can be tried.

Diagnosis Peripheral nerve tumors

Your doctor may ask you about symptoms and signs in order to diagnose a peripheral nerve tumor. He or she may perform a general physical exam and order tests to help determine the cause of your symptoms.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).This scan uses a magnet and radio waves to produce a detailed map of your nerves and surrounding tissue.

  • Computerized tomography (CT) is a medical imaging technique that uses X-rays to create cross-sectional images of the body.A CT scanner rotates around your body to create a series of images. A computer uses these images to create a high-resolution view of your peripheral nerve tumor, so that your doctor can determine how it is affecting you.

  • Electromyogram (EMG).Your doctor will place small needles in your muscles so an electromyography machine can measure the electrical activity in your muscles as you try to move them.

  • Nerve conduction study.You might have this test along with your EMG. The EMG measures how quickly your nerves send electrical signals to your muscles.

  • Tumor biopsy. If imaging tests show that you have a tumor, your doctor may take a small sample of cells from the tumor for testing. Depending on the size and location of the tumor, you may need general or local anesthesia during the biopsy. Sometimes this is the only way to know for sure if the tumor is cancerous. Cancerous means that the cells in the body are growing out of control.

  • Nerve biopsy.If you have a condition that causes nerve damage, such as progressive peripheral neuropathy or nerve tumors that look like tumors, your doctor may take a nerve biopsy.

Nerve tumors are rare. If you have a question about whether or not you have one, talk to your doctor. If it's needed, seek a second opinion.

Treatment Peripheral nerve tumors

There are many different types of nerve tumors Some kinds of tumors can be treated with surgery If a tumor is too large or has grown into the spinal cord it may need to be removed using surgery and/or radiation therapy Severe cases of cancer might be treated by chemotherapy Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells It is often used in addition to surgery and radiation therapy.

Your treatment for a peripheral nerve tumor will depend on the type of tumor you have, which nerves and other tissues it affects, and your symptoms. Possible treatments include:


If the tumor is located in a difficult to reach place, or if the tumor is slow-growing and does not cause any symptoms or signs, then waiting and watching may be an option. You will have regular checkups to monitor the tumor's growth. Sometimes doctors may perform CT or MRI scans to check the tumor's progress. Grow.


Surgery is needed to remove a tumor located on a peripheral nerve. The goal of surgery is to remove the entire tumor without harm to nearby healthy tissue and nerves. If surgery isn't possible, surgeons may remove as much of the tumor as possible.

New techniques and instruments make it easier for neurosurgeons to reach tumors that were once considered inaccessible. Microscopes used in microsurgery allow doctors to distinguish a tumor from healthy tissue. Doctors can also monitor the function of nerves during surgery, which helps preserve the patient's ability to move and feel their limbs. Tissue that is healthy will be white.

Surgical removal of a tumor can cause nerve damage and disability. This risk is often based on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the surgical approach used. Some tumors can grow back.

Stereotactic radiosurgery

Your doctor may recommend stereotactic radiation therapy to treat some peripheral nerve tumors located in or around the brain. In stereotactic radiation therapy, such as Gamma Knife radiation therapy, doctors deliver radiation precisely to a tumor without making an incision.

There are risks associated with radiosurgery, such as weakness or numbness in the treated area and tumor growth that continues even after treatment has been successful. Rarely, radiation could cause cancer in the treated area in the future.

Cancer treatment

Cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are used to treat malignant tumors. The most important factor in having a good outcome is early diagnosis and treatment. Tumors may recur after treatment.


After surgery, you may need physical rehabilitation. Your doctor may use a brace or splint to keep your arm or leg in a position that helps you heal. Physical therapists and occupational therapists can help you regain function and mobility lost as a result of nerve damage or limb amputation.

Coping and support

You may find it stressful dealing with the potential complications of peripheral nerve tumors and deciding which treatment would be best for you. Here are some suggestions that may help:

  • Learn about peripheral nerve tumors. These tumors can be found in different parts of the body, and they can be treated if they are found early.The more you know, the better equipped you will be to make good treatment choices. Besides talking to your doctor, you may want to talk to a counselor or social worker. Or you may find it helpful to talk to other people who have a condition similar to yours and learn more about their experiences.After treatment, patients experience ________.

  • Maintain a strong support system.You can rely on your family and friends to support you during this difficult time, but sometimes it can be comforting to receive understanding and concern from others who also have a condition like yours.
    Your doctor or social worker may be able to connect you with a support group.

Preparing for your appointment

If your primary care doctor thinks you may have a peripheral nerve tumor, he or she may refer you to a doctor who specializes in disorders of the nervous system (neurologist) or a doctor who is trained in brain and nervous system surgery (neurosurgeon).

What you can do

Before your appointment, you might want to prepare a list of questions that you will ask the doctor.

  • When did you first notice this problem?

  • Has it worsened with time?

  • Do you have any relatives who have had the same symptoms?

  • Do you have other medical problems?

  • What medications and supplements do you take on a regular basis?

  • What surgeries have you had?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask some of the following questions: 1. What are your symptoms? 2. What kind of infections have you had? 3. Are you taking any prescription or over-the-counter medications? 4. Have you been exposed to anything unusual in the past few weeks? 5. Do you have any allergies?

  • Do you have pain? Where is it located?

  • Can you tell me if you have any weakness or numbness in your hands, feet, or face?

  • Has your illness been present constantly or only occasionally?

  • What have you done so far to try and fix these problems?

General summary

  1. A nerve tumor is a benign (not cancerous) growth that develops on the nerves in the body When one of these tumors becomes large enough to compress a nerve it can affect sensation or movement Surgery isn’t usually recommended for small or middle-sized tumors because they typically don’t cause symptoms and removing them would leave too many healthy nerves untreated Instead they are monitored with imaging tests like CT scans or MRIs If a tumor continues to grow then surgery may be an option.

  1. Medical And Anatomical Concept Of The Human Body
  2. Diseases Diagnosis and Treatment-A/Z
  3. Medical Specialties
  4. Organ surgery : Detailed explanation
  5. Diagnosis And Medical Examinations
Next Post Previous Post