Polycystic Ovary Syndrome : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance because of the ovaries (the organ that produces and releases eggs) growing excess male hormones. If you have got PCOS, your ovaries produce surprisingly excessive degrees of hormones referred to as androgens. This causes your reproductive hormones to become imbalanced. As a result, human beings with PCOS often have erratic menstrual cycles, missed periods and unpredictable ovulation. Small cysts may develop in your ovaries (fluid-filled sacs) due to loss of ovulation (anovulation). However, regardless of the call "polycystic," you do not now want to have cysts in your ovaries to have PCOS.

PCOS is one of the most not unusual reasons for girl infertility. It can also increase your risk for different health situations. Your healthcare company can treat PCOS based totally on your signs and when you have plans for having kids.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a situation that affects a lady’s hormone stages.

What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Women with PCOS produce better-than-regular quantities of male hormones. This hormone imbalance causes their frame to pass menstrual intervals and makes it harder for them to get pregnant.

PCOS also causes hair boom on the face and body, and baldness. And it can contribute to lengthy-time period fitness problems like diabetes and heart disease.

Birth control capsules and diabetes pills (which fight insulin resistance, a PCOS symptom) can help restore the hormone imbalance and enhance signs and symptoms.

Read on for a take a look at the viable reasons for PCOS and its possible outcomes on a girl’s body.

  1. Female Reproductive System

  • Internal reproductive organs

  1. Ovaries

  2. Fallopian tubes

  3. Uterus

  4. Cervix

  5. Placenta

  • External reproductive organs

  1. Vulva

  2. Clitoris

  3. Vagina

Medical terms

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder not unusual amongst women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may additionally have infrequent or extended menstrual intervals or extra male hormone (androgen) ranges. The ovaries might also expand numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.
  • The genuine reason for PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and remedy at the side of weight loss may also lessen the chance of lengthy-term headaches consisting of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart sickness.
  • PCOS is a hassle with hormones that impacts ladies all through their childbearing years (ages 15 to forty four). Between 2.2 and 26.7 percent of girls in this age group have PCOS (1, 2 Trusted Source).
  • Many women have PCOS however don’t comprehend it. In one have a look at, up to 70 percent of girls with PCOS hadn’t been recognized (2 Trusted Source).
  • PCOS affects a lady’s ovaries, the reproductive organs that produce estrogen and progesterone — hormones that alter the menstrual cycle. The ovaries additionally produce a small quantity of male hormones called androgens.
  • The ovaries release eggs to be fertilized through a person’s sperm. The release of an egg every month is called ovulation.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced within the pituitary gland, control ovulation.

FSH stimulates the ovary to produce a follicle — a sac that carries an egg — after which LH triggers the ovary to launch a mature egg.

PCOS is a “syndrome,” or organization of signs that influences the ovaries and ovulation. Its 3 primary functions are:

  • cysts in the ovaries

  • high levels of male hormones

  • irregular or skipped periods

Symptoms Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

The maximum commonplace PCOS signs are neglected, abnormal, infrequent, or extended durations. Excess androgens can motivate hair loss, hair in locations you don’t want it (like to your face), and zits.Signs and signs and symptoms of PCOS frequently increase around the time of the first menstrual duration during puberty. Sometimes PCOS develops later, for instance, in response to great weight advantage.

Signs and symptoms of PCOS range. A analysis of PCOS is made when you enjoy at least  of these signs and symptoms:

  • Irregular periods. Infrequent, irregular or extended menstrual cycles are the most common sign of PCOS. For instance, you may have fewer than nine periods a year, greater than 35 days between durations and abnormally heavy intervals.

  • Excess androgen. Elevated stages of male hormones can also result in physical symptoms, such as extra facial and body hair (hirsutism), and every so often intense pimples and male-sample baldness.

  • Polycystic ovaries. Your ovaries might be enlarged and comprise follicles that surround the eggs. As a result, the ovaries would possibly fail to feature regularly.

PCOS symptoms and symptoms are generally extra excessive in case you're overweight.

When to see a doctor

See your health practitioner if you have concerns about your menstrual periods, in case you're experiencing infertility or if you have signs and symptoms of extra androgen which includes worsening hirsutism, pimples and male-pattern baldness.

Causes Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

The specific cause of PCOS isn't always clear. Many ladies with PCOS have insulin resistance. This method of the frame can't use insulin nicely. Insulin ranges build up inside the frame and might purpose higher androgen ranges. Obesity also can increase insulin ranges and make PCOS signs worse.

PCOS might also run in families. It's not unusual for sisters or a mother and daughter to have PCOS.

The precise reason for PCOS isn't recognized. Factors that could play a role consist of:

  • Excess insulin. Insulin is the hormone produced inside the pancreas that allows cells to apply sugar, your body's number one power supply. If your cells become immune to the motion of insulin, then your blood sugar stages can upward push and your frame would possibly produce greater insulin. Excess insulin might increase androgen production, inflicting difficulty with ovulation.

  • Low-grade inflammation. This term is used to explain white blood cells' production of substances to combat infection. Research has proven that women with PCOS have a sort of low-grade infection that stimulates polycystic ovaries to supply androgens, which could lead to coronary heart and blood vessel problems.

  • Heredity. Research shows that sure genes are probably linked to PCOS.

  • Excess androgen. The ovaries produce abnormally excessive levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and zits.

Complications Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

One of the first-class methods to cope with PCOS is to lose weight with healthful eating and everyday workout. Even a small amount of weight reduction can have an effect on hormone levels and help to regulate your menstrual cycle and simplify your signs.

If extra hair booms or pimples are hurting your confidence, cosmetic remedies or running with a dermatologist is probably beneficial.

Finally, if you are attempting to conceive and were diagnosed with PCOS, realize that you aren't alone. Your healthcare issuer will paint with you to help you get pregnant. Eating healthfully and decreasing your strain levels can go an extended way in assisting you manipulate PCOS.

Complications of PCOS can include:

  • Infertility

  • Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure

  • Miscarriage or premature birth

  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver

  • Metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease

  • Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes

  • Sleep apnea

  • Depression, anxiety and eating disorders

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding

  • Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)

Obesity is associated with PCOS and can worsen complications of the disorder.

Can PCOS go away?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition among women of child-bearing age It can cause irregular or no menstrual periods and fertility problems If you have PCOS you may want to know if it will ever go away To answer this question it helps to understand what causes PCOS in the first place The exact cause is unknown but there are certain risk factors for developing this condition Research has shown that PCOS occurs more frequently in women with a family history of PCOS Women who are obese or overweight are also at increased risk for developing the condition Additionally there appears to be a genetic link with PCOS because some women seem to develop symptoms after their mothers have.

How can PCOS be prevented?

PCOS can be prevented by maintaining healthy lifestyle habits including not smoking staying physically fit managing stress and getting enough sleep If you have PCOS it is also important to monitor your diet for weight gain and high-carbohydrate foods A balanced diet containing a variety of whole grains, fruits , veggies and lean protein is recommended.

How can I reduce my PCOS fast?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder that affects the way a woman's hormones work This condition causes the ovaries to make male sex hormones instead of female sex hormones There are many symptoms of PCOS and not every woman with this condition has all of them Some women have no symptoms at all Symptoms can include: irregular periods or no menstrual periods; small cysts in the ovaries; weight gain; acne; and thinning hair on the head.

Is PCOS a serious problem?

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a serious problem that affects more than 20 percent of women in the United States It results in a variety of symptoms including irregular menstrual cycles infertility, excess facial and body hair, acne obesity and diabetes.

What is the best age to get pregnant with PCOS?

The best age to get pregnant with PCOS is a topic that often comes up among women diagnosed with this condition. While there's no specific answer to this question there is some information to consider in an attempt to determine the best time to conceive.

Can I get pregnant if I have PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder that affects women The main sign of PCOS is enlarged ovaries that contain small collections of fluid called follicles Women with PCOS have high levels of male hormones (androgens) and irregular periods which can make it difficult to conceive because the menstrual cycle may be altered so the eggs cannot be released It's possible to become pregnant if you have PCOS Losing weight through a healthy diet and exercise will improve your fertility by reducing insulin levels and decreasing the production of male hormones You may also want to consider taking Metformin a medication that helps regulate insulin levels Your doctor may also prescribe Clomid a fertility drug for women with PCOS who.

Prevention Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

There isn't any confirmed way to save you PCOS, but you can take small steps to reduce your signs. For instance, eating nutritious meals, exercise often and dealing with your weight allow you to avoid the outcomes of PCOS.

Diagnosis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

No single test can diagnose PCOS. Your health practitioner will begin by asking approximately your signs and symptoms and medical history and through doing a bodily exam, and in all likelihood a pelvic examination.

They may provide you with blood assessments to measure your hormone degrees, blood sugar, and cholesterol. An ultrasound can check your ovaries for cysts, search for tumors, and degree the liner of your uterus.

There's no take a look at to definitively diagnose PCOS. Your health practitioner is in all likelihood first of all a discussion of your scientific history, consisting of your menstrual periods and weight changes. A physical exam will encompass checking for symptoms of excess hair boom, insulin resistance and zits.

  1. Gynecological examination

Your doctor would possibly then endorse:

  • A pelvic exam. The physician visually and manually inspects your reproductive organs for loads, growths or other abnormalities.

  • Blood tests. Your blood may be analyzed to measure hormone tiers. This trying out can exclude possible causes of menstrual abnormalities or androgen excess that mimics PCOS. You would possibly have additional blood trying out to degree glucose tolerance and fasting cholesterol and triglyceride tiers.

  • An ultrasound. Your doctor examines the appearance of your ovaries and the thickness of the lining of your uterus. A wandlike tool (transducer) is located for your vagina (transvaginal ultrasound). The transducer emits sound waves that are translated into snapshots on a pc display screen.

If you have a prognosis of PCOS, your medical doctor may propose additional exams for headaches. Those exams can include:

  • Periodic checks of blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels

  • Screening for depression and anxiety

  • Screening for obstructive sleep apnea

Treatment Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Treatment for PCOS depends on more than a few things. These may additionally consist of your age, how severe your signs are, and your standard health. The sort of remedy may additionally depend on whether or not you want to emerge as pregnant within the destiny.

PCOS treatment makes a speciality of dealing with your individual worries, inclusive of infertility, hirsutism, zits or obesity. Specific remedy may involve way of life modifications or remedy.

Lifestyle changes

Your medical doctor may additionally advise weight loss via a low-calorie food regimen combined with moderate workout sports. Even a modest reduction in your weight — for example, dropping five percent of your frame weight — may enhance your condition. Losing weight may additionally boom the effectiveness of medicinal drugs your doctor recommends for PCOS, and might help with infertility.


To modify your menstrual cycle, your health practitioner may advocate:

  • Combination birth control pills. Pills that include estrogen and progestin decrease androgen production and adjust estrogen. Regulating your hormones can lower your chance of endometrial cancer and accurate peculiar bleeding, excess hair growth and zits. Instead of pills, you might use a skin patch or vaginal ring that consists of a mixture of estrogen and progestin.

  • Progestin therapy. Taking progestin for 10 to 14 days every one to 2 months can regulate your durations and protect against endometrial most cancers. Progestin remedy does not enhance androgen levels and might not prevent pregnancy. The progestin-best mini pill or progestin-containing intrauterine device is a higher preference if you also desire to keep away from pregnancy.

To help you ovulate, your medical doctor may suggest:

  • Clomiphene. This oral anti-estrogen medicine is taken for the duration of the primary part of your menstrual cycle.

  • Letrozole (Femara). His breast cancer remedy can work to stimulate the ovaries.

  • Metformin. This oral medication for type 2 diabetes improves insulin resistance and lowers insulin degrees. If you don't end up pregnant with the use of clomiphene, your doctor would possibly suggest including metformin. If you've got prediabetes, metformin also can gradual the development to kind 2 diabetes and help with weight loss.

  • Gonadotropins. These hormone medications are given by injection.

To reduce immoderate hair growth, your health practitioner might propose:

  • Birth control pills. These drugs lower androgen manufacturing that can cause immoderate hair increase.

  • Spironolactone (Aldactone). This medication blocks the outcomes of androgen at the pores and skin. Spironolactone can cause birth defects, so effective contraception is needed at the same time as taking this remedy. It isn't always endorsed if you're pregnant or planning to turn out to be pregnant.

  • Eflornithine (Vaniqa). This cream can slow facial hair growth in women.

  • Electrolysis. A tiny needle is inserted into every hair follicle. The needle emits a pulse of electrical current to damage and in the end wreck the follicle. You may need a couple of treatments.

Lifestyle and home remedies

To help lower the effects of PCOS, try to:

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Weight loss can reduce insulin and androgen stages and might repair ovulation. Ask your physician approximately a weight-manipulate software, and meet often with a dietitian for help in attaining weight loss desires.

  • Limit carbohydrates. Low-fat, excessive-carbohydrate diets may increase insulin degrees. Ask your health practitioner approximately a low-carbohydrate weight loss program when you have PCOS. Choose complex carbohydrates, which improve your blood sugar levels more slowly.

  • Be active. Exercise allows a decrease in blood sugar levels. If you've got PCOS, increasing your daily interest and participating in a normal workout application may additionally treat or maybe save you insulin resistance and help you hold your weight under control and avoid growing diabetes.

Preparing for your appointment

You can be referred to a specialist in female reproductive remedy (gynecologist), a specialist in hormone issues (endocrinologist) or an infertility professional (reproductive endocrinologist).

Here's some statistics that will help you get geared up to your appointment.

What you can do

  • List symptoms you've been having, and for how long

  • List all medications, vitamins and supplements you take, including the doses

  • List key personal and medical information, including other conditions, recent life changes and stressors

  • Prepare questions to ask your doctor

  • Keep a record of your menstrual cycles

For PCOS, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What tests do you recommend?

  • How does PCOS affect my potential to emerge as pregnant?

  • What medications do you recommend to help improve my symptoms or ability to conceive?

  • What lifestyle modifications do you recommend to help improve my symptoms or ability to conceive?

  • What are the long-term health implications of PCOS?

  • I have other medical conditions. How can I best manage them together?

During your appointment, don't hesitate to ask different questions as they arise to you.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • What are your signs and symptoms? How often do they occur?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • When did each symptom begin?

  • When was your last period?

  • Have you gained weight since you first started having periods? How much weight did you gain, and when did you gain it?

  • Does anything improve or worsen your symptoms?

  • Are you trying to become pregnant, or do you wish to become pregnant?

  • Has your mother or sister ever been diagnosed with PCOS?

General summary

  1. Polycystic ovarian syndrome or PCOS is a hormonal disorder It develops when the ovaries produce too much androgen a type of hormone that promotes male traits like facial hair in women Common symptoms of PCOS include obesity difficulty getting pregnant and menstrual irregularities that can lead to anemia There is no cure for PCOS but medication can control the symptoms.
  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive-aged women It affects approximately 5 to 10 percent of premenopausal women and is one of the leading causes of infertility PCOS is also associated with an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease The exact cause of PCOS is unknown but it is a complex disorder that involves multiple factors including genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers.
  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition characterized by the presence of multiple ovarian cysts infrequent or absent menstrual periods and high levels of male hormones PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility It affects about 10 percent of women of childbearing age but many cases go undiagnosed because it is not routinely screened for.

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