Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome :Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What Is Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome?

Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a fairly commonplace coronary heart circumstance that causes the coronary heart to overcome abnormally fast for durations of time.

The cause is an additional electric connection inside the heart. This hassle with the coronary heart is a gift at delivery (congenital), even though symptoms might not broaden until later in existence. Many cases are identified in any other case of healthy teenagers.

What Is Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome?
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW)

Sometimes the more electric connection may not cause any signs and symptoms and can simplest be picked up when an electrocardiogram (ECG) check is performed for some other cause. In these instances, in addition assessments may be achieved to determine if treatment is required.

Does your coronary heart every now and then beat very fast? Have you ever felt it pass a beat? This is referred to as palpitations. It feels strange but is usually innocent.

In some human beings, though, it may be a sign of trouble. Heart palpitations are one viable symptom of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. It is an unprecedented circumstance of abnormal heartbeat, or arrhythmia.

The coronary heart has an electrical system that works in a positive manner. Signals tour in an exact pattern from the higher to the decreased chambers of the heart. This machine continues the coronary heart beating frequently.

People with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome have an extra electrical pathway. It causes extraordinary heartbeats. And it may cause a completely serious arrhythmia called supraventricular tachycardia. This is when the ventricles (the coronary heart’s decreased chambers) beat right away.

Medical terms

  • The history of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW) dates back to the early 1900s when French and German physicians were first observing patients with an unusual constellation of symptoms As a result of these observations the first descriptions of what would become WPW syndrome were published in 1906 and 1909. The terms "pre-excitation syndrome" and "prolonged QT interval syndrome" were also used to describe patients who had a similar combination of symptoms In 1929 the Medical Research Council group from London introduced the name Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome which is still widely used today.
  • In Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, an additional signaling pathway among the heart's upper and lower chambers causes a quick heartbeat (tachycardia). WPW syndrome is a heart situation present at birth (congenital heart disorder). It is fairly uncommon.
  • The episodes of rapid heartbeats visible in WPW syndrome commonly aren't lifestyle-threatening, but severe coronary heart issues can arise. Rarely, WPW syndrome may additionally result in unexpected cardiac demise in youngsters and teenagers.
  • Treatment of WPW syndrome may additionally consist of unique actions, medicinal drugs, a shock to the heart (cardioversion) or a catheter procedure to stop the abnormal coronary heart rhythm (arrhythmia).
  • WPW syndrome will also be known as preexcitation syndrome.

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a congenital heart condition characterized by an extra electrical pathway between the heart's upper and lower chambers The electrical circuit known as the accessory pathway causes rapid heartbeat or irregular heartbeat also called arrhythmia Other symptoms of Wolff-Parkinson-White may include chest pain (angina) and dizziness or fainting (syncope) Some people may experience no symptoms at all.

Symptoms Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

If you have WPW syndrome, you may enjoy episodes wherein your coronary heart all at once starts racing, before stopping or slowing down all of sudden. This fast heart rate is referred to as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).

The most not unusual sign of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a heart charge more than one hundred beats a minute.

Episodes of a quick coronary heart charge (tachycardia) can begin abruptly and may close a few seconds or numerous hours. Episodes can arise for the duration of exercising or while at relaxation.

Other signs and symptoms and signs and symptoms of WPW syndrome are associated with the fast coronary heart fee and underlying heart rhythm hassle (arrhythmia). The most commonplace arrhythmia visible with WPW syndrome is supraventricular tachycardia. Supraventricular tachycardia causes episodes of a fast, pounding heartbeat that start and cease . Some humans with WPW syndrome also have a fast and chaotic coronary heart rhythm hassle referred to as atrial traumatic inflammation.

In standard, signs and symptoms and symptoms that could occur in humans with WPW syndrome consist of:

  • A rapid, fluttering or pounding heartbeat (palpitations)

  • Chest pain

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Dizziness or lightheadedness

  • Fainting

  • Fatigue

  • Shortness of breath

  • Anxiety

Symptoms in infants

Signs and signs and symptoms of WPW syndrome in toddlers can encompass:

  • Pale or faded skin color (pallor)

  • Blue or gray coloring to the skin, lips and nails (cyanosis)

  • Restlessness or irritability

  • Rapid breathing

  • Poor eating

Some humans with an extra electrical pathway do not have symptoms or symptoms of a quick heartbeat. This situation is known as Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) sample. It's frequently discovered by hazard in the course of a coronary heart. Take a look at.

When to see a doctor

Many things can cause a fast heartbeat. It's critical to get a prompt diagnosis and care. Sometimes a fast heartbeat, or heart charge, isn't always a subject. For example, the coronary heart fee might also grow with exercising.

If you sense like your coronary heart is beating too rapidly, make an appointment to peer at a fitness card issuer.

Call 911 or your nearby emergency range when you have any of the subsequent signs and symptoms for extra than a few minutes:

  • Sensation of a fast or pounding heartbeat

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Chest pain

Causes Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

Normally, electrical indicators comply with a certain pathway via the heart. This allows the heart to beat regularly. This prevents the heart from having extra beats or beats occurring too soon.

In people with WPW syndrome, some of the coronary heart's electric alerts move down an additional pathway. This may also motivate a totally fast coronary heart charge called supraventricular tachycardia.

Most human beings with WPW syndrome now do not have any other coronary heart problems. However, this circumstance has been connected with different cardiac situations, such as the Ebstein anomaly. A form of the circumstance additionally runs in families.

Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a form of coronary heart hassle present at birth (congenital coronary heart disorder). WPW syndrome may arise with other forms of congenital heart ailment, including Ebstein anomaly.

Rarely, WPW syndrome is passed down through families (inherited). The inherited, or familial, type is associated with a thickened heart muscle. This is a form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

To recognize the causes of WPW syndrome, it can be beneficial to realize how the coronary heart usually beats.

How does the heart beat?

The coronary heart is made from 4 chambers — two top chambers (atria) and  lower chambers (ventricles).

The coronary heart's rhythm is managed via a natural pacemaker (the sinus node) in the right higher chamber (atrium). The sinus node sends electrical signals that generally begin every heartbeat. These electrical indicators circulate across the atria, causing the coronary heart muscle mass to squeeze (agreement) and pump blood into the ventricles.

Next, the heart indicators arrive at a cluster of cells known as the AV node, where the alerts sluggish down. This slight delay lets the ventricles fill with blood. When the electric indicators attain the ventricles, the chambers contract and pump blood to the lungs or to the relaxation of the frame.

In an average coronary heart, this heart signaling procedure usually goes easily, ensuing in a resting coronary heart charge of 60 to one hundred beats a minute.

In WPW syndrome, an extra electrical pathway connects the upper and lower heart chambers, permitting heart signals to bypass the AV node. As a result, the coronary heart alerts do not slow down. The alerts end up excited, and the heart price receives faster. The more pathway can also motivate heart alerts to journey backward, inflicting an uncoordinated coronary heart rhythm.

Complications Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome

But a few signs and symptoms can also pose challenges. For instance, if you tend to faint because of the circumstance, you can now not be capable of driving a vehicle or participating in different activities.

How well you’ll do relies upon loads at the kind of arrhythmia you've got and how frequently it takes place. That’s why it’s so important to peer your medical doctor and get scheduled for tests.WPW syndrome has been linked to sudden cardiac demise in kids and young adults.

The short answer is WPW gets worse with age and lifestyle choices If you have WPW the electrical pathway in your heart that causes an abnormally rapid heartbeat (ectopic ventricular beats or PVCs) may be triggered by exercise alcohol caffeine and other substances or activities If these same triggers are present when you're older they can cause your PVCs to come more frequently or trigger a couple of abnormal beats at once (a so-called "double" beat) A double beat can lead to a dangerous chaotic rhythm in which the heart doesn't pump blood effectively This can cause dizziness fainting heart attacks and death.

Diagnosis Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

This syndrome is a congenital disorder that affects the electrical system of the heart The most important abnormality in WPW syndrome is an accessory pathway that bypasses the AV node and connects the lower part of the atria to the ventricles This accessory pathway conducts fast impulses from the atria along its abnormal route to the ventricles where it causes an abnormal and rapid heartbeat called preexcitation

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or WPW is a disorder in which the electrical pathway between the atria and ventricles of the heart does not function normally The normal pathway involves an electrical connection between the upper right atrium and lower left ventricle through the bundle of His and part of the right bundle branch In WPW a separate accessory pathway exists that bypasses these structures and allows electrical signals to travel directly from the atria to the ventricles This condition can either be present at birth (congenital) or develop later in life (acquired) It is usually diagnosed by ECG during a routine physical examination or if an abnormality is discovered during evaluation for other.

If your physician thinks you may have WPW syndrome after assessing your signs, they'll likely advocate having an electrocardiogram (ECG) and will refer you to a cardiologist (heart specialist).

  1. Ballistocardiography
  2. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

An ECG is a test that data your coronary heart's rhythm and electric pastime. Small discs called electrodes are stuck onto your palms, legs and chest and linked by way of wires to an ECG system. The machine processes the tiny electrical signals produced with the aid of your heart each time it beats.

If you have WPW syndrome, the ECG will report an uncommon pattern that isn't generally present in folks that do not have the condition.

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

To verify the analysis, you may be requested to wear a small transportable ECG recorder so your coronary heart rhythm can be recorded at some point of an episode. The recorder will hint your coronary heart charge continuously over a few days, or whilst you switch it on on the begin of an episode.If you have a quick heartbeat, your health care company will probable suggest exams to test for WPW syndrome, which includes:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This quick and painless test measures the electrical pastime of the coronary heart. Sticky patches (electrodes) are placed at the chest and from time to time the arms and legs. Wires join the electrodes to a computer, which displays the take a look at effects. A fitness card issuer can look for styles of a few of the coronary heart signals that suggest an additional electric pathway inside the heart.

  • Holter monitor. This transportable ECG tool is worn for a day or extra to record the coronary heart's charge and rhythm in the course of day by day sports.

  • Event recorder. This wearable ECG device is used to locate infrequent arrhythmias. You press a button while symptoms occur. An occasion recorder is generally worn for up to 30 days or till you've got an arrhythmia or signs and symptoms.

  • Electrophysiological (EP) study. An EP examine may be encouraged to distinguish among WPW syndrome and WPW pattern. One or extra skinny, bendy tubes (catheters) are guided through a blood vessel, usually within the groin, to numerous spots inside the heart. Sensors on the hints of the catheters document the coronary heart's electrical styles. An EP take a look at allows a fitness card issuer to look how electric alerts spread through the heart at some point of every heartbeat.

Treatment Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

Treatment depends on the type and frequency of arrhythmias, related signs which include syncope, and presence of structural heart ailment. Typically a physician will suggest an ablation method to similarly define the traits of the accessory pathway, and in the long run, to dispose of the pathway absolutely.

Treatment for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome relies upon the severity and frequency of symptoms and the form of coronary heart rhythm trouble (arrhythmia) causing the short heart rate.

The goals of remedy are to gradual a fast heart fee while it takes place and to prevent destiny episodes. Treatment alternatives for a quick heart fee include:

  • Vagal maneuvers. Simple however precise actions together with coughing, bearing down as though having a bowel movement or putting an ice % on the face can assist sluggish down the coronary heart price. Your fitness care provider can also ask you to carry out those moves all through an episode of a quick heartbeat. These actions have an effect on the vagus nerve, which enables manipulation of the pulse.

  • Medications. If vagal maneuvers do not prevent a quick heartbeat, you would possibly need medicines to manipulate the coronary heart rate and repair the coronary heart rhythm. Medications may also want to be given by IV.

  • Cardioversion. Paddles or patches at the chest are used to electrically shock the heart and assist reset the coronary heart rhythm. Cardioversion is usually used whilst vagal maneuvers and medications don't paint.

  • Catheter ablation. In this procedure, the fitness care provider inserts a skinny, bendy tube (catheter) through a blood vessel, generally in the groin, and publishes it to the coronary heart. Sometimes multiple catheters are used. Sensors at the tip of the catheter use heat (radiofrequency electricity) to create tiny scars within the coronary heart. The scar tissue permanently blocks defective electrical indicators, restoring a normal heartbeat. Catheter ablation does not require surgical procedure to access the coronary heart, however it is able to additionally be completed at the equal time as other heart surgical procedures.

People with a further signaling pathway however no symptoms (WPW sample) generally don't want remedy.

  1. Heart transplant

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you've got Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome or episodes of a fast heart fee (tachycardia), your health care provider will likely advise following a coronary heart-healthy way of life. Take these steps:

  • Avoid caffeine or other stimulants.

  • Don't smoke.

  • Eat a healthy diet.

  • Get regular exercise.

  • Limit or avoid alcohol.

  • Maintain a healthy weight.

  • Manage emotional stress.

Preparing for your appointment

Here's some information that will help you get equipped for your appointment.

What you can do

When you're making the clinical appointment, ask if you need to do something in advance, such as restricting your or your infant's weight loss plan.

Write down the following data and take it with you to the appointment:

  • Your or your child's symptoms, including any that may seem unrelated to the heart, and when they began

  • All medications, vitamins or other supplements you or your child takes, including doses

  • Important medical details, including other diagnosed conditions

  • Key personal information, including any recent life changes or stressors

  • Questions to ask your healthcare provider

Questions to ask your doctor

For WPW syndrome, some primary inquiries to ask your fitness care provider encompass:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What treatments can help?

  • What are the risks of WPW syndrome?

  • How often will I need follow-up appointments?

  • Do I need to restrict activities?

  • How will other conditions that I have or medications I take affect my heart condition?

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you questions, such as:

  • How severe are the symptoms?

  • How often does the fast heartbeat occur?

  • How long do episodes last?

  • Does anything, such as exercise, stress or caffeine, seem to trigger the episodes or make symptoms worse?

  • Is there a family history of tachycardia or heart disease?

General summary

  1. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a relatively common but potentially life-threatening heart condition It occurs in about 1 out of every 500 people although some experts say that it could be more common and underdiagnosed The risk of developing WPW syndrome increases with age In children and younger adults WPW syndrome can have serious consequences such as sudden death However with treatment most people with WPW syndrome live healthy lives.

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