Selective IgA Deficiency : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What Is Selective IgA Deficiency?

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a protein determined in the blood. It protects the frame towards infections within the membranes (thin tissues) that line the airlines, eyes, mouth and digestive machine.

People with selective IgA deficiency don’t have this protein or have very low tiers (deficiency) of the protein. Selective IgA deficiency is an immunodeficiency ailment (a sickness that includes a scarcity within the immune system). You may additionally see it called SIgAD.

Selective IgA Deficiency is described as a primary immunodeficiency characterized by an undetectable degree of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the blood and secretions but no different immunoglobulin deficiencies.

There are 5 types (training) of immunoglobulins or antibodies inside the blood: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE. IgG is found in the biggest quantity, observed with the aid of IgM and IgA. IgD is an awful lot lower, and IgE is present in best minute amounts. IgM and IgG particularly shield us from infections inside our frame tissues, organs and blood. While IgA is present inside the blood, most of the IgA within the body is inside the secretions of the mucosal surfaces, together with tears, saliva, colostrum, genital, breathing and gastrointestinal secretions.

What Is Selective IgA Deficiency?
Selective IgA Deficiency

The IgA antibodies within the secretions play a prime role in defending us from infections in these regions. IgG and IgM also are determined in secretions however now not in almost the same amount as IgA. IgA found in these secretions is likewise termed secretory IgA. If human mucosal surfaces had been spread out flat, they would cowl an area identical to one and a 1/2 tennis courts, so the significance of IgA in defensive mucosal surfaces can not be overstated.

IgA is an antibody blood protein that helps protect you from sickness. If you have a low level of IgA, this means that your body doesn't make enough of this antibody protein. This could mean that you are at a greater risk for infection.

IgA is found in mucous membranes, mainly in the respiratory and digestive tracts. It is also found in saliva and breastmilk. A deficiency of IgA may play a part in asthma and allergies.IgA deficiency has been linked to autoimmune health problems. These are health problems that cause inflammation and pain. Your immune system is supposed to attack other things, not you.

  1. Heart

  2. Arteries

  3. Veins

  4. Blood vessels

Medical terms

  • Selective IgA deficiency is an immune gadget condition in that you lack or don't have enough immunoglobulin A (IgA), a protein that fights infection (antibody). Most humans with selective IgA deficiency do not have recurrent infections. However, a few humans who've IgA deficiency experience pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, allergies, bronchial asthma and diarrhea.
  • Autoimmune diseases, wherein your immune machine attacks unique organs or tissues on your personal body, may be found with selective IgA deficiency. Common autoimmune situations discovered with IgA deficiency encompass rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, celiac disorder or inflammatory bowel sickness.
  • (SIgAD) Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in which there is a hereditary cause It is often diagnosed early in life but may not be recognized or treated without a careful history and physical examination The diagnosis can be confirmed by either a positive skin test for IgA or a low level of serum IgA but even when it is suspected some experts recommend further evaluation with more specialized testing before starting treatment.

Selective IgA deficiency is a condition in which there are low levels of IgA antibodies in the blood serum The normal level for IgA in adults is between 0.2 and 1.0 grams per liter of blood serum People with selective IgA deficiency have less than one-tenth that amount in their blood serum according to the National Institutes of Health The condition can be genetic or it may be acquired later in life Acquired selective IgA deficiency is usually due to an autoimmune disorder typically systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis.

Selective iga deficiency inheritance

Selective IgA Deficiency (IgAD) is a condition in which the body produces an abnormally low level of IgA While rare IgAD occurs in approximately 1 out of 500 people This is different than IgA nephropathy in that this condition only affects the production of IgA and not the kidneys.

Is selective IgA deficiency immunocompromised?

In a healthy individual antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to a foreign substance such as a virus or bacteria that has invaded the body These antibodies are specific to the invading microbe and their purpose is to identify it and neutralize it so that it can no longer cause disease in its host Selective IgA deficiency (IgA-ID) is an immunodeficiency which results from the inability of the affected person’s body to produce IgA one of the four types of antibodies.

Symptoms Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD)

Many people with an IgA deficiency don't have any symptoms. It's usually found on a blood test if it's detected at all. About 1 in 4 to 1 in 2 people with selective IgA deficiency will be affected. Some people with an IgA deficiency are more likely to get frequent infections. Infections can include sinus and lung infections. People with IgA deficiency are more likely to have allergies and digestive and autoimmune problems such as celiac disease or lupus.

Most people with selective IgA deficiency now do not have any symptoms. Doctors often locate the disease whilst checking out for every other circumstance. About 25% to 50% of people with selective IgA deficiency will have headaches. Some human beings with selective IgA deficiency experience repeated infections. The most common areas of contamination encompass:

  • Airways 

  • air passages in the lungs.

  • Sinuses.

  • Ears.

  • Mouth.

  • Eyes.

  • Digestive tract (belly).

Causes Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD)

IgA deficiency is a health problem that is often passed down through families.This means the behavior is passed down from one generation to the next. It can be caused by medications you are taking, or by a rare condition that occurs when you get the disease from your parents.

IgA deficiency is a fitness hassle that is exceeded down through households in approximately 1 in 5 instances. This approach it's far genetic. In rare instances, it could be caused by medicines you're taking.

Risk factors Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD)

Potential complications can include:

  • Diarrhea

  • Sinusitis

  • Bronchitis

  • Eye infection

  • Ear infection

  • Pneumonia

  • Disorders that occur when the body's immune system attacks its own tissues.

  • Skin infection

  • Asthma

  • If you are allergic to blood or blood products, you may have a reaction when you receive a transfusion.

Is IgA deficiency serious?

An IgA deficiency is not a serious condition but it can cause problems For example if an infant has the deficiency and is exposed to viruses such as those that cause gastroenteritis or respiratory infections the condition can be life-threatening because of the baby's very low levels of IgA antibodies In some cases this can lead to failure to thrive or even death

Complications Selective IgA Deficiency

Most humans with selective IgA deficiency are wholesome, but some sufferers enjoy greater common or severe infections. Patients with selective IgA deficiency have a slightly higher hazard of having allergies (bizarre immune gadget reactions to environmental materials or meals) and asthma (swollen airways in the lungs).

Some humans with selective IgA deficiency expand autoimmune disorders (when the body’s immune system harms its own cells). These situations may also include:

  • Celiac disease: A disorder in which consuming gluten (a protein in wheat) causes damage to the small intestine.

  • Inflammatory bowel disease: Disorders that cause inflammation (swelling) and harm in the digestive tract, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis: A condition that involves inflammation of the joints.

  • Lupus: Disorders that motivate irritation (swelling) and harm inside the digestive tract, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

In uncommon cases, human beings with selective IgA deficiency can develop a life-threatening circumstance referred to as anaphylaxis (extreme allergic reaction) if a physician gives them blood products containing IgA.

How can I increase my IgA antibodies?

Antibodies are produced by the body to help fight off infections The two main types of antibodies are IgA and IgG IgA is the one that fights bacterial viral and parasitic infections Some foods can help increase your levels of IgA These include vegetables fruits and grains as well as spices such as basil ginger and oregano Foods containing these items have been found to be helpful in increasing a person's IgA levels.

What level is considered an IgA deficiency?

The level of IgA in the blood indicates how well your immune system is working. A deficiency in this protein can be a sign of infection or a hidden disease such as diabetes or an autoimmune disorder.

Is IgA deficiency reversible?

Yes Since IgA deficiency is a genetic condition only children with the genetic defect can be affected by it It's possible for parents to pass on either an affected or a healthy gene to their child A child who inherits the unhealthy gene from both parents will develop IgA deficiency A child who is born without the genetic defect will remain healthy even if he/she has IgA deficiency in his/her family history.

Does IgA deficiency make you tired?

IgA deficiency is a term used to describe a person who has low levels of immunoglobulin A in their bloodstream The immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody is the first line of defense against infections that enter the body through mucosal tissue such as the mouth nose and throat If you have IgA deficiency you may have trouble fighting off these infections and will be more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections like colds and sinusitis In most cases IgA deficiency occurs because there isn’t enough of the antibody produced by your body It can also result from an autoimmune disorder or a genetic defect.

Prevention Selective IgA Deficiency

IgA deficiency is a problem that you may be able to pass down through your family. But you can help to prevent the spread of germs and sickness by washing your hands often and staying away from large crowds during cold and flu season. You can also talk with your parents about this problem. Talk to your healthcare provider about vaccines that may help prevent illness. Get vaccinated when the provider says it is safe for you to do so.

If you have IgA deficiency, and are worried about the potential risks of passing it on to your children, talk with a genetic counselor.


Key points

  • IgA is an antibody found in mucous membranes, especially the respiratory and digestive tracts. It is also found in saliva tears and breastmilk.

  • IgA deficiency is a health problem that can be passed down from family members.

  • Some people who have an IgA deficiency don't have any symptoms.

  • There is currently no cure for IgA deficiency. Immunotherapy cannot help treat it.

  • IgA deficiency can cause complications such as asthma, diarrhea, ear and eye infections, autoimmune diseases, and pneumonia.

  • Washing your hands often and staying away from large groups of people will help limit the spread of germs and illnesses.

Diagnosis Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD)

If you have IgA deficiency, or some of the symptoms listed above, your doctor might perform blood tests to check for the deficiency.

  1. Blood analysis

  2. Blood count

  3. Blood typing

Immunologists, or doctors who specialize inside the immune gadget, may additionally ship blood checks to evaluate a affected person who has frequent infections or autoimmune sickness. Low tiers of IgA affirm the analysis of selective IgA deficiency. In many cases, the situation is identified while an affected person undergoes blood checking for some other situation, like celiac sickness, and coffee tiers of IgA are incidentally cited.

Treatment Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD)

There is no cure for IgA deficiency. However, taking steps to lessen your risk of illness or infection can help. For example, if you get sick, take antibiotics when needed. If infections are ongoing (chronic), you may need to take antibiotics every day.

Most people with selective IgA deficiency don't need remedy except they've common infections. In a few instances, treatment can also consist of a protracted path of antibiotics to help prevent an infection from returning.

What you can do

Some tips to help make the most of your visit to the doctor:

  • Be sure to know the reason for your visit and what you hope to achieve.

  • When you visit, make a list of questions you would like answered.

  • Make sure someone accompanies you when you visit your healthcare provider. You might need help remembering what was said.

  • On my visit, I will record your new diagnosis and any new medications, treatments, or tests that are recommended. I will also write down any new instructions your provider gives me.

  • Before receiving a new medicine or treatment, be sure to understand why it was prescribed and what its intended benefits are. Also be aware of any potential side effects.

  • Is there anything else that can be done to help your condition?

  • Be aware of why a test or procedure is recommended and what the possible results could be.

  • If you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure, there are likely to be consequences.

  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose of that visit.

  • If you have any questions, please contact your provider.

General summary

  1. Selective IgA deficiency is a genetic disorder that reduces the amount of the body's natural antibody IgA in the blood. A person with the disease has normal levels of other types of antibodies but has less than normal amounts of IgA which makes them more susceptible to infections.
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