Shigella Infection(Shigellosis): Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What is Shigella Infection(Shigellosis) ?

You may feel a pointy cramp in your abdomen and lower abdomen. Then, you'll have the urge to use the toilet -- as several as ten to thirty times daily after you have dysentery, a sort of food poisoning.

Caused by a gaggle of bacterium referred to as shigella, this infection will cause belly pain, fever, and watery or bloody diarrhea.

What is Shigella Infection(Shigellosis) ?
Shigella Infection(Shigellosis)

The malady is common among young children, who typically get infected at daycare or school. you may additionally get shigellosis whereas you’re visiting developing countries wherever poor hygiene might cause traveler’s diarrhea.

The unwellness typically goes away in five to seven days with rest and fluids. However, in severe cases, you'll have to be moved to the hospital.

dysentery is common within the US with a couple of half-million cases each year. It’s way more deadly in poorer countries (about one hundred sixty five million cases and regarding one million deaths worldwide every year).Shigellosis, or enterics infection caused by enterics bacteria, could be a disease that affects your biological process system. It produces abdomen pain, symptoms and fever in those that are infected. enterics is extremely contagious. There are numerous sorts in the enterics bacteria group.

you'll get dysentery by ingesting contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. If you swim in contaminated water, you'll get shigellosis by accidentally swallowing water that you’re swimming in.

enterics infection, a sort of food poisoning, might also be referred to as bacillary dysentery. infectious disease could be a word for a symptom that contains blood or mucus.Anyone is often infected with Shigella, however it often happens in regions with poor sanitation or in jam-packed places, adore schools, day care centers and nursing homes. Younger kids are additionally possible to be infected because they usually place their hands in their mouths.Shigellosis could be a worldwide problem, with regarding one88 million cases each year that lead to about 1 million deaths per year. In developed countries, there are about 1.5 million cases per year. Within the U.S., there are around 450,000 cases each year.

  1. Digestive system

Medical terms

  • Shigella infection (shigellosis) is an enteral infection caused by a family of microorganisms referred to as enteric bacteria. The biggest sign of shigella infection is diarrhea, which regularly is bloody. enteric bacteria is incredibly contagious. individuals get infected with shigella after they are available contact with and swallow little amounts of bacteria from the stool of an individual who is infected with shigella. For example, this may happen in an exceedingly kid care setting once employees members don't wash their hands to a tolerable degree once ever-changing diapers or serving toddlers with restroom training. enteric bacteria may be passed in infected food or by drinking or swimming in unsafe water. kids beneath age five are possibly to induce enteric bacteria infection, however it will occur at any age. a gentle case typically clears information on its own at intervals a week. Once treatment is needed, doctors usually dictate antibiotics. 
  • (Dysentery) Shigella infection also known as bacillary dysentery is caused by a type of bacteria called shigella People who get infected can develop diarrhea abdominal cramps and fever You may also have nausea vomiting or pain in your abdomen and rectum Shigella is spread when a person eats food or drinks water that has been contaminated with the feces (poop) of someone who's infected with this bacterium It can also be passed from person to person if proper hygiene isn't practiced after using the bathroom and not washing hands thoroughly afterwards.

Shigella infection is caused by Shigella bacteria The illness it causes is also called shigellosis The bacteria are found in the stool of infected people They are spread to others through close contact with the stool of an infected person such as when changing diapers or food preparation Shigella can also be spread by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water.

Symptoms Shigella Infection (Shigellosis)

Frequent bouts of watery looseness of the bowels are the most symptomTrusted supply of bacillary dysentery. Abdominal cramping, nausea, and reflex may additionally occur. Many of us who have shigellosis even have either blood or mucous secretion in their stool, and that they may run a fever. Symptoms typically beginTrusted supply among 1–2 days of coming back connected with Shigella. In some cases, symptoms of infection may seem in as little as twelve hoursTrusted supply once contacted. looseness of the bowels and different signs of shigellosis usually last between 5–7 daysTrusted Source. a gentle infection lasting some days might not need treatment. There's still potential for enterics bacteria to be in your stool for weeks once your symptoms have gone away. This implies that you just will doubtless unfold the infection to others for many weeks, albeit you are feeling better. It’s crucial to remain hydrous in between bouts of looseness of the bowels. decide your doctor if you've got diarrhea for more than three days. This is often terribly important, particularly if you can’t keep down food or water. Dehydration may be a real danger related to shigellosis.

Signs and symptoms of shigella infection usually begin a day or two after contact with shigella. But it may take up to a week to develop. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Diarrhea (often containing blood or mucus)

  • Stomach pain or cramps

  • Fever

  • Nausea or vomiting

Symptoms typically last for about 5 to seven days. In some cases, symptoms might last longer. Some folks don't have any symptoms once they've been infected with shigella. However, their excreta should still be contagious up to a couple of weeks.

When to see a doctor

Contact your doctor or request urgent care if you or your kid has bloody looseness of the bowels or diarrhea severe enough to cause weight loss and dehydration. Also, contact your doctor if you or your child has diarrhea and a fever of one zero one F (38 C) or higher. 

Can Shigella go away on its own?

Shigella is a type of bacteria that causes diarrhea It can be found in the intestines and feces of people who have it and is spread through fecal-oral transmission when someone accidentally consumes food or drinks contaminated with the stool of an infected person Shigella can cause severe cramping bloody diarrhea (sometimes containing mucus or blood) fever nausea and vomiting While most cases resolve on their own within a week or so antibiotic treatment may be necessary if you have serious symptoms that don't go away on their own within a few days.

What food causes Shigella?

Shigella is an infectious agent that causes the disease shigellosis Shigella live in the intestines of people and animals where they cause the typical symptoms of diarrhea abdominal pain and fever The bacteria can be spread through direct contact with people or animals who are infected Food contaminated by human feces may also spread shigellosis A major concern is that Shigella can spread easily to young children who do not wash their hands after using the bathroom The bacteria are transmitted through fecal-oral contact; thus close personal contact with someone who has shigellosis or intimate physical contact with a child while changing diapers may transmit Shigella germs.

Causes Shigella Infection (Shigellosis)

Shigella bacteria are sometimes found within the stool (feces, or poop) of individuals who are infected. The bacteria unfold once somebody comes into contact with the stool of AN infected person or comes into contact with an item that’s been contaminated with the stool or the bacteria. folks get bacillary dysentery by consumption food or water that has been contaminated, or through sexual contact with an infected person. Many various foods are often contaminated, however enterics is found typically in raw vegetables or shellfish.

Infection occurs when you accidentally swallow shigella bacteria. This can happen when you:

  • Touch your mouth. Direct person-to-person contact is the most typical method of malady. For example, if you don't wash your hands well, once the diaper of a toddler who has enteric bacteria is infected, you'll become infected yourself. 

  • Eat contaminated food. Infected those that handle food can unfold the bacterium to people who eat the food. Food can even become infected with enteric bacteria if it grows in a very field that contains sewage. 

  • Swallow contaminated water. Water may become infected with shigella bacteria either from sewage or from a person with shigella infection swimming in it.

Risk factors Shigella Infection (Shigellosis)

  • Being a child. Children under age 5 are most likely to get shigella infection. But shigella can infect people of any age.

  • Living in group housing or participating in group activities. Close contact with others spreads the bacterium from person to person. enterics outbreaks are common in kid care centers, community walking pools, nursing homes, jails and military barracks. 

  • Living or traveling in areas that lack sanitation. People who live or travel in developing countries are more likely to get shigella infection.

  • Being a man who has sex with men. Men who have sex with men are at higher risk of shigella infection because of direct or indirect oral-anal contact during sexual activity.

Complications Shigella Infection

Shigella infection typically clears up while not causing complications. however it should take weeks or months before your internal organ habits come to normal. Complications may include:

  • Dehydration. Constant diarrhea will cause dehydration. Signs and symptoms embody lightheadedness, dizziness, lack of tears in children, sunken eyes and dry diapers. Severe dehydration can cause shock and death. 

  • Seizures. Some youngsters with a enterics infection have seizures. Seizures are a lot more common in children who have a high fever, however they will occur in children who don't have a high fever. It's not best-known whether or not the seizures are a result of the fever or the shigella infection itself. If your child incorporates a seizure, contact your doctor immediately. 

  • Rectal prolapse. In this condition, straining throughout viscus movements or inflammation of the massive intestine might cause the membrane or lining of the body part to maneuver out through the anus. 

  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome. This rare complication of enterics, a lot of ordinarily caused by a sort of E. coli bacterium than by shigella bacteria, will cause an occasional red blood corpuscle count (hemolytic anemia), low living substance count (thrombocytopenia) and acute excretory organ failure. 

  • Toxic megacolon. This rare complication happens once your colon becomes paralyzed, preventing you from having a movement or passing gas. Signs and symptoms embrace abdomen pain and swelling, fever and weakness. If you don't receive treatment for an unhealthy megacolon, your colon might break open (rupture), inflicting peritonitis, a grave infection requiring emergency surgery. 

  • Reactive arthritis. Reactive inflammatory disease develops in response to associate degree infection. Signs and symptoms embody joint pain and inflammation, sometimes within the ankles, knees, feet and hips; redness, cutaneous sensation and discharge in one or each eye (conjunctivitis); and painful voiding (urethritis). 

  • Bloodstream infections (bacteremia). Shigella infection will injure the lining of the intestines. In rare cases, enterics bacteria can enter the blood through the broken enteric lining and cause a bloodstream infection. 

Prevention Shigella Infection

Shigella germs can unfold simply from one person to a different – and it solely takes a little quantity of enterics to create somebody sick. find out how you'll facilitate shielding yourself and your admired ones from getting sick.Although researchers still work to develop a shigella vaccine, nothing is accessible yet. to forestall the spread of shigella:

  • Wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds frequently

  • Watch small children when they wash their hands

  • Throw away soiled diapers properly

  • Disinfect diaper-changing areas after use

  • Don't prepare food for others if you have diarrhea

  • Keep children with diarrhea home from child care, play groups or school

  • Avoid swallowing water from ponds, lakes or untreated pools

  • Avoid sexual activity with anyone who has diarrhea or who recently recovered from diarrhea

  • Don't go swimming until you have fully recovered.

Diagnosis Shigella Infection (Shigellosis)

Infection is diagnosed once a science laboratory oratory identifies enterics within the stool (poop) of an associate degree unwell person. The test may be a culture that isolates the bacteria or a fast diagnostic assay that detects genetic material of the bacteria.Diarrhea and bloody diarrhea may result from a variety of diseases. Confirming shigella infection involves taking a sample of your stool to be tested during a lab for the presence of shigella bacteria or their toxins.

Treatment Shigella Infection (Shigellosis)

In most cases, you'll be able to live through dysentery by resting and drinking fluids to switch what you’ve lost from symptoms. Avoid medicine that stops diarrhea or weighs down the gut. medicine appreciates diphenoxylate with mydriatic drug (Lomotil) or loperamide (Imodium) can build shigellosis worse. In severe cases, your doctor may order antibiotics to shorten the illness. This could be for seniors, infants, or those that produce other diseases. Some enterobacter bacteria are proof against antibiotics, therefore the treatment might not work. Tell your doctor if prescription antibiotics don’t cause you to feel better once you’ve taken them for many days.Shigella infection typically runs its course in 5 to seven days. Replacing lost fluids from symptoms is also all the treatment you need, notably if your general health is sweet and your enterobacter infection is mild.

Over-the-counter drugs

Talk to your doctor before taking AN over-the-counter (OTC) drug that is supposed to treat diarrhea. diarrhea is often caused by a variety of conditions, and over-the-counter drugs might build some conditions worse. If a research lab check has confirmed that you simply have enterics infection, an over-the-counter drug containing metallic element subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol, Kaopectate) may decrease the frequency of your stools and shorten the length of your illness. However, it isn't counseled for children, pregnant girls or people that are allergic to aspirin. Avoid taking over-the-counter anti-motility drugs, like loperamide (Imodium) and medicines containing the mixture of diphenoxylate and antidote (Lomotil). These aren't counseled for enterics infection as a result they'll decrease your body' ability to clear the bacteria and build your condition worse.


For severe enterobacter infection, antibiotics may shorten the length of the illness. However, some shigella bacteria become drug resistant. Thus, your doctor might not advocate antibiotics unless your shigella infection is severe. Antibiotics can also be necessary for infants, older adults and other people who have HIV infection, further as in things wherever there's a high risk of spreading the disease.

Fluid and salt replacement

For typically healthy adults, drinkable is also enough to counteract the dehydrating effects of diarrhea. kids might get pleasure from an oral rehydration solution, reminiscent of Pedialyte, accessible in drugstores. several pharmacies carry their own brands. Kids and adults who are severely dehydrated would like treatment during a hospital emergency room, wherever they will receive salts and fluids through a vein (intravenously), instead of by mouth. Blood vessel association provides the body with water and essential nutrients way more quickly than oral solutions do.

Preparing for your appointment

Most people who have enterics infection recover on their own and don't have to see a doctor. If you or your kid has severe symptoms or a high fever, you'll want treatment.

What you can do

Before talking with your doctor, you may want to write a list of answers to the following questions:

  • What are the symptoms?

  • When did the symptoms start?

  • Have you or your child been exposed to a person who has or had shigella infection?

  • Do you or your child have a fever? If so, how high is it?

What to expect from your doctor

During the physical exam, your doctor may proceed with numerous components of your abdomen to envision for pain or tenderness. He or she might also use a cotton swab to urge a stool culture or send you home with directions for aggregation and transporting a sample of your stool so it may be tested for proof of infection.

General summary

  1. Shigella infection is a bacterial disease that causes diarrhea fever abdominal cramps and pain according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The most common symptoms of shigella infection include diarrhea and fever that can last for up to a week In addition to vomiting the victim may experience headaches muscle aches and loss of appetite Children with shigella infections usually do not develop a rash or red eyes Unlike other forms of food poisoning Shigella poisoning does not occur as a result of eating bad food; it can be transmitted through contaminated water or person-to-person contact.
  2. Shigella is a highly contagious intestinal infection caused by the Shigella bacteria It spreads in several ways including through food or water that has been contaminated with feces from an infected person or animal.

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