Sjogren's Syndrome : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What Is Sjogren's Syndrome?

Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune sickness. This means that your immune system assaults components of your personal body with the aid of mistakes. In Sjogren's syndrome, it attacks the glands that make tears and saliva. This causes a dry mouth and dry eyes. You may also have dryness in different locations that want moisture, inclusive of your nose, throat, and pores and skin. Sjogren's can also have an effect on different components of the body, including your joints, lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, digestive organs, and nerves.

Most human beings with Sjogren's syndrome are girls. It generally starts after age forty. It is once in a while connected to other illnesses consisting of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

What Is Sjogren's Syndrome?
Sjogren's Syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that causes your immune machine to head haywire and assault healthy cells as opposed to invading bacteria or viruses. Your white blood cells, which commonly defend you from germs, assault the glands which can be at the price of creating moisture. When that occurs, they can not produce tears and saliva, so your eyes, mouth, and other parts of your body dry out. There are treatments that deliver remedy, though.

It's herbal to worry while you analyze you've got a lifelong disease so that it will want everyday care. Keep in mind that the majority with Sjogren's lives wholesome and do not have extreme troubles. You need to be able to preserve doing all of the things you love to do without making many adjustments.

  1. Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a group of glands in various parts of the body that secrete hormones, which are chemical substances that act as messengers to target cells. Hormones influence metabolism, growth and development, sexual function and reproductive processes, and mood. Many hormones are secreted in response to signals from the nervous system. Endocrine disorders can result from overproduction or underproduction of hormones, from changes in hormone sensitivity, or from structural abnormalities in hormone-producing glands.

  1. Pituitary gland

  2. Pineal gland

  3. Thyroid gland

  4. Parathyroid glands

  5. Adrenal glands

  6. Pancreas

Medical terms

  • Sjogren's (SHOW-grins) syndrome is an ailment of your immune system diagnosed via its  most not unusual signs — dry eyes and a dry mouth.
  • The circumstance regularly accompanies different immune system issues, together with rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. In Sjogren's syndrome, the mucous membranes and moisture-secreting glands of your eyes and mouth are normally affected first — resulting in decreased tears and saliva.

Although you could broaden Sjogren's syndrome at any age, the majority are older than 40 at the time of prognosis. The circumstance is a whole lot greater common in girls. Treatment focuses on relieving signs.

There are two forms of Sjögren's syndrome:

  1. Primary Sjögren's syndrome Develops on its own, not due to any other health condition.

  2. Secondary Sjögren's syndrome Develops in addition to other autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and psoriatic arthritis.

Symptoms Sjogren's syndrome

The most common symptom associated with Sjogren’s is the incapacity to supply moisture for the eyes and dry mouth,In addition to extremely dry eyes and mouth, some people experience muscle pain and joint ache all over the body, similar to fibromyalgia.The  major signs and symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome are:

  • Dry eyes. Your eyes might burn, itch or feel gritty — as if there's sand in them.

  • Dry mouth. Your mouth would possibly experience like it's complete of cotton, making it hard to swallow or communicate.

Some human beings with Sjogren's syndrome also have one or extra of the following:

  • Joint pain, swelling and stiffness

  • Swollen salivary glands — particularly the set located behind your jaw and in front of your ears

  • Skin rashes or dry skin

  • Vaginal dryness

  • Persistent dry cough

  • Prolonged fatigue

Causes Sjogren's syndrome

The purpose of Sjögren's is unknown, but we know it's far from an autoimmune disorder. This suggests that the immune device, which typically protects the body against cancers and infections, is reacting against its personal tissues. The formation of extraordinary antibodies (referred to as autoantibodies) in blood that react to self-proteins is a marker and/or contributor to this manner. The decrease in tears and saliva occurs when the glands that produce these fluids grow to be dysfunctional and broken with the aid of irritation and infiltration by way of blood cells referred to as lymphocytes. Research indicates that genetic factors and sex hormones whilst combined with an environmental agent, together with a viral contamination, may trigger improvement of the ailment.

Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune sickness. Your immune system mistakenly assaults your frame's own cells and tissues.

Scientists are not sure why a few people develop Sjogren's syndrome. Certain genes place human beings at higher chances of sickness, however it seems that a triggering mechanism — including contamination with a specific virus or strain of microorganism — is also necessary.

In Sjogren's syndrome, your immune machine first targets the glands that make tears and saliva. But it is able to also harm other elements of your body, along with:

  • Joints

  • Thyroid

  • Kidneys

  • Liver

  • Lungs

  • Skin

  • Nerves

Risk factors Sjogren's syndrome

Doctors don't know the precise purpose. You can also have genes that positioned you at danger. An contamination with a bacteria or virus may be a trigger that sets the sickness in movement.

For example, let's consider you have a defective gene that's related to Sjogren's, and then you definitely get contamination. Your immune gadget swings into movement.

Sjogren's syndrome typically takes place in people with one or greater acknowledged hazard elements, together with:

  • Age. Sjogren's syndrome is usually diagnosed in people older than 40.

  • Sex. Women are much more likely to have Sjogren's syndrome.

  • Rheumatic disease. It's commonplace for human beings who have Sjogren's syndrome to actually have a rheumatic ailment — consisting of rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

Complications Sjogren's Syndrome

Most humans who've Sjögren’s syndrome live their lives without any significant issues. However, a dry mouth means that you are much more likely to have dental problems, which include tooth decay and contamination. Dry eyes can also place you at danger for eye infections.

If you have got secondary Sjögren’s syndrome, you could also have issues like joint pain resulting from rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.The maximum common complications of Sjogren's syndrome involve your eyes and mouth.

  • Dental cavities. Because saliva shields the enamel from the bacteria that motivate cavities, you're more susceptible to developing cavities in case your mouth is dry.

  • Yeast infections. People with Sjogren's syndrome are more likely to develop oral thrush, a yeast infection in the mouth.

  • Vision problems. Dry eyes can lead to light sensitivity, blurred vision and corneal harm.

Less common complications might affect:

  • Lungs, kidneys or liver. Inflammation can cause pneumonia, bronchitis or different troubles for your lungs; result in troubles with kidney function; and cause hepatitis or cirrhosis for your liver.

  • Lymph nodes. A small percent of people with Sjogren's syndrome expand most cancers of the lymph nodes (lymphoma).

  • Nerves. You might expand numbness, tingling and burning for your arms and ft (peripheral neuropathy).

Prevention Sjogren's Syndrome

Because no person knows precisely what causes Sjögren’s syndrome or other autoimmune illnesses, there's no known way to save you.

Sjogren's syndrome is a common autoimmune disease that causes dry eyes and mouth The disorder affects both men and women but tends to be more common in women The exact cause of Sjogren\'s syndrome is unknown but researchers believe the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva.

Do not be afraid to share the story of how you were diagnosed with Sjogren's. You can also explain what it was like for you when you were first diagnosed. Did you experience any symptoms? What did your doctor tell you? How are you feeling now that you have been diagnosed?

Diagnosis Sjogren's syndrome

Diagnosis relies upon a combination of signs and symptoms, physical exam, blood tests, and special studies to look for objective evidence of dry eyes and dry mouth. The prognosis of Sjögren’s can not be based on signs and symptoms on my own due to the fact dry eyes and mouth are notably usual symptoms inside the fashionable population and may be resulting from many other situations or medicines. Special assessments may additionally assess for decreases in tear or saliva production. An eye exam with staining of the cornea and conjunctiva with essential dyes facilitates detect and check for damage (i.E. Dry spots) to the outer floor of the eyes caused by dryness. Blood assessments can look for autoantibodies that frequently occur in this disease. Typical antibodies include anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-SSA/Ro, SSB/La antibodies or rheumatoid components. Biopsy of the minor salivary glands (commonly taken from the internal decreased lip) can also be used to make an analysis whilst autoantibodies are absent.

Children and teenagers frequently give with extraordinary signs and symptoms and symptoms of Sjögren's as compared to older adults. Initial signs and symptoms greater commonly include swollen parotid glands and arthralgias (joint pains). The pediatric population also might also have neurologic and kidney manifestations. Dryness capabilities would possibly or might not be a gift at diagnosis.

Sjogren's syndrome can be hard to diagnose because the signs and signs and symptoms vary from man or woman to man or woman and may be much like the ones due to other illnesses. Side results of a number of medications additionally mimic some signs and symptoms and signs of Sjogren's syndrome.

Tests can help rule out other situations and help pinpoint a prognosis of Sjogren's syndrome.

Blood tests

Your medical doctor would possibly order blood exams to check for:

  • Levels of different types of blood cells

  • Presence of antibodies common in Sjogren's syndrome

  • Evidence of inflammatory conditions

  • Indications of problems with your liver and kidneys

Eye tests

Your doctor can determine the dryness of your eyes with a test called a Schirmer tear test. A small piece of filter out paper is positioned beneath your decreased eyelid to measure your tear manufacturing.

A health practitioner specializing in the treatment of eye issues (ophthalmologist) may also look at the floor of your eyes with a magnifying tool referred to as a slit lamp. He or she may also have area drops to your eye that make it less complicated to see damage to your cornea.


Certain imaging exams can test the function of your salivary glands.

  • Sialogram. This unique X-ray can hit upon dye that is injected into the salivary glands in front of your ears. This system shows how tones saliva flows into your mouth.

  • Salivary scintigraphy. This nuclear medicinal drug test involves the injection into a vein of a radioactive isotope that's tracked over an hour to see how quickly it arrives in all your salivary glands.


Your health practitioner may also do a lip biopsy to discover the presence of clusters of inflammatory cells, which can suggest Sjogren's syndrome. For this check, a sliver of tissue is eliminated from salivary glands for your lip and examined underneath a microscope.

Treatment Sjogren's syndrome

You'll need to take a medicinal drug at some stage in your existence that will help you control your symptoms. You can buy some types in a drugstore without a prescription, even as your health practitioner may also need to prescribe more potent ones if the ones don’t work well enough.

For example, drops referred to as "synthetic tears" can preserve your eyes from drying out. You'll want to use them regularly at some point of the day. There also are gels that you placed on your eyes at night. The advantage of the gels is that they keep on with your eye's surface, so you might not want to use them as regularly because of the drops.

Treatment for Sjogren's syndrome relies upon the components of the body affected. Many people manage the dry eye and dry mouth of Sjogren's syndrome with the aid of using over-the-counter eye drops and sipping water more often. But some people need prescription medicinal drugs, or even surgical procedures.


Depending for your symptoms, your doctor would possibly propose medications that:

  • Decrease eye inflammation. Prescription eye drops inclusive of cyclosporine (Restasis) or lifitegrast (Xiidra) can be recommended through your eye doctor if you have moderate to excessive dry eyes.

  • Increase production of saliva. Drugs together with pilocarpine (Salagen) and cevimeline (Evoxac) can grow the manufacturing of saliva, and from time to time tears. Side outcomes can encompass sweating, stomach ache, flushing and multiplied urination.

  • Address specific complications. If you develop arthritis symptoms, you may benefit from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pills (NSAIDs) or other arthritis medicinal drugs. Yeast infections inside the mouth ought to be treated with antifungal medicinal drugs.

  • Treat systemwide symptoms. Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), a drug designed to treat malaria, is frequently helpful in treating Sjogren's syndrome. Drugs that suppress the immune machine, including methotrexate (Trexall), additionally are probably prescribed.


A minor technique to seal the tear ducts that drain tears from your eyes (punctal occlusion) might assist relieve your dry eyes. Collagen or silicone plugs are inserted into the ducts to help maintain your tears.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Many Sjogren's syndrome symptoms reply well to self-care measures.

To relieve dry eyes:

  • Use artificial tears, an eye lubricant or both. Artificial tears — in eye drop form — and eye lubricants — in eye drop, gel or ointment form — help relieve the discomfort of dry eyes. You should not follow eye lubricants as often as artificial tears. Because in their thicker consistency, eye lubricants can blur your imagination and prescient and gather your eyelashes, so you would possibly want to apply them only in a single day.
    Your doctor might suggest synthetic tears without preservatives, that may worsen the eyes of people with dry eye syndrome.

  • Increase humidity. Increasing the indoor humidity and reducing your publicity to blowing air can assist hold your eyes and mouth from getting uncomfortably dry. For example, keep away from sitting in front of a fan or air con vent, and wear goggles or protective eyewear when you pass outdoors.

To help with dry mouth:

  • Don't smoke. Smoking can irritate and dry out your mouth.

  • Increase your fluid intake. Take sips of fluids, especially water, at some point of the day. Avoid drinking coffee or alcohol considering the fact that they are able to get worse dry mouth signs. Also avoid acidic drinks which include colas and a few sports liquids due to the fact the acid can damage the teeth of your tooth.

  • Stimulate saliva flow. Sugarless gum or citrus-flavored tough sweets can improve saliva flow. Because Sjogren's syndrome will increase your danger of dental cavities, restrict sweets, specifically between meals.

  • Try artificial saliva. Saliva replacement products often work better than undeniable water due to the fact they contain a lubricant that facilitates your mouth to stay moist longer. These merchandise come as a spray or lozenge.

  • Use nasal saline spray. A nasal saline spray can help moisturize and clear nasal passages so that you can breathe freely through your nostril. A dry, stuffy nostril can boom mouth respiratory.

Oral health

Dry mouth increases your threat of dental cavities and tooth loss. To help save you those kinds of issues:

  • Brush your teeth and floss after every meal

  • Schedule regular dental appointments, at least every six months

  • Use daily topical fluoride treatments and antimicrobial mouthwashes

Other areas of dryness

If dry skin is a hassle, avoid hot water while you bathe and bathe. Pat your pores and skin — don't rub — with a towel, and follow moisturizer while your pores and skin remain damp. Use rubber gloves whilst doing dishes or house cleaning. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants assist women who have vaginal dryness.

Preparing for your appointment

Depending on your signs, you might start by seeing your circle of relatives as a medical doctor, dentist or eye medical doctor. But you may ultimately be mentioned as a doctor who specializes in the remedy of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions (rheumatologist).

What you can do

Make a list that includes:

  • Detailed descriptions of your symptoms and when they began

  • Information about your current and past medical problems

  • Information about your parents' or siblings' medical history

  • All medications and dietary supplements you take, including doses

  • Questions you want to ask the doctor

For Sjogren's syndrome, basic questions include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What treatment approach do you recommend?

  • How soon can I expect my symptoms to improve with treatment?

  • Am I at risk of long-term complications from this condition?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Do you have brochures or other published substances that I could have? What websites do you endorse?

What to expect from your doctor

Your health practitioner is in all likelihood to invite you some of questions, such as:

  • Do your symptoms follow a pattern — worsening throughout the day or when you go outdoors?

  • Do you have chronic conditions such as high blood pressure or arthritis?

  • Have you recently started new medications?

  • Do any close relatives have rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or a similar disease?

General summary

  1. Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its own moisture-secreting glands causing dryness in the eyes mouth and other areas It occurs when white blood cells attack the salivary glands and tear ducts reducing or eliminating their secretion of saliva and tears As a result Sjogren's usually causes a dry mouth nose swollen lymph nodes and dry eyes A doctor may also diagnose Sjogren's by testing for decreased production of tears and saliva.
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