Temporal lobe Seizure : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What Is Temporal lobe Seizure(TLE)?

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is epilepsy that starts off evolving in the temporal lobe area of your brain. You have  temporal lobes, one on each side of your head at the back of your temples (by way of your ears and in alignment along with your eyes).

TLE is the maximum commonplace localized (additionally known as “focal”) type of epilepsy. About 60% of people with focal epilepsy have TLE.

Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes modifications in mind of mobile pastime that bring about seizures, durations of unusual behavior or emotions, and in some instances a loss of attention. Temporal lobe epilepsy is one of 20 distinctive varieties of epilepsy.

What Is Temporal lobe Seizure(TLE)?
Temporal lobe Seizure

There are  kinds of temporal lobe epilepsy. Each is described with the aid of the part of the temporal lobe wherein it originates. One begins inside the medial (inner) region of the temporal lobe, whilst the other starts in the neocortical (facet) vicinity of the temporal lobe. The mind’s temporal lobes deal with emotions and also help with the processing and storage of brief-time period memories.

Temporal lobe epileptic seizures are similarly categorized. If there is a loss of consciousness, they’re referred to as complex partial seizures. If you stay conscious, they’re known as easy partial seizures. In most cases, human beings continue to be aware in the course of temporal lobe seizures, making them easy partial seizures.

  1. Nervous system

  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus

Medical terms

  • Temporal lobe seizures start within the temporal lobes of your mind, which system feelings and are important for brief-term memory. Some signs of a temporal lobe seizure can be related to these functions, consisting of having bizarre feelings — together with euphoria, deja vu or worry.
  • Temporal lobe seizures are from time to time called focal seizures with impaired recognition. Some people remain aware of what is occurring, however at some point of greater-excessive seizures, you would possibly look unsleeping but be unresponsive. Your lips and fingers may additionally make purposeless, repetitive movements.
  • Temporal lobe seizures might also stem from an anatomical disorder or scar on your temporal lobe, however the purpose is often unknown. Temporal lobe seizures are dealt with with medicinal drugs. For some folks who do not respond to remedy, surgical procedure can be an alternative.

A person experiencing a temporal lobe seizure may exhibit unusual behavior and/or experience physical symptoms Some of the most common temporal lobe seizure symptoms include: • Unusual behavior such as staring blankly or picking at clothing or skin • Stiffness or jerking of arms and legs • Numbness or tingling in parts of the body.

Types Temporal lobe seizure(TLE)

  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). About eighty% of all temporal lobe seizures start in the mesial temporal lobe, with seizures regularly starting in or close to a shape known as the hippocampus. You have a hippocampus in each temporal lobe, which manages memory and mastering. MTLE is the most common form of epilepsy.

  • Neocortical or lateral TLE. In this kind of TLE, seizures begin inside the outer segment of your temporal lobe. This kind of TLE is very rare and more often than not because of a genetic cause or lesions along with a tumor, beginning defect, blood vessel abnormality or different abnormalities in the temporal lobe.

Symptoms Temporal lobe seizure(TLE)

You might also have an charisma earlier than a temporal lobe seizure. An charisma is an unusual sensation that you feel earlier than a seizure begins. Not everybody reviews an air of secrecy. An air of mystery is a part of a focal aware seizure, which means you’re unsleeping and aware whilst the signs and symptoms occur. They usually close from a few seconds to 2 mins.

An unusual sensation (air of mystery) may also precede a temporal lobe seizure, performing as a warning. Not everyone who has temporal lobe seizures has auras, and not all and sundry who have auras recall them.

The air of mystery is truly the primary part of a focal seizure earlier than focus is impaired. Examples of auras encompass:

  • A sudden sense of unprovoked fear or joy

  • A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened before

  • A sudden or strange odor or taste

  • A rising sensation in the abdomen, similar to being on a roller coaster

Sometimes temporal lobe seizures impair your capability to reply to others. This form of temporal lobe seizure normally lasts 30 seconds to two mins. Characteristic signs and symptoms and signs include:

  • Loss of awareness of surroundings

  • Staring

  • Lip smacking

  • Repeated swallowing or chewing

  • Unusual finger movements, such as picking motions

After a temporal lobe seizure, you may have:

  • A period of confusion and difficulty speaking

  • Inability to recall what occurred during the seizure

  • Unawareness of having had a seizure

  • Extreme sleepiness

In severe cases, what starts as a temporal lobe seizure evolves right into a generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure — providing convulsions and loss of cognizance.

When to see a doctor

Seek immediate medical help if any of the following occurs:

  • The seizure lasts more than five minutes.

  • Breathing or consciousness doesn't return after the seizure stops.

  • A second seizure follows immediately.

  • Recovery isn't complete after the seizure is over.

  • Recovery is slower than usual after the seizure is over.

  • You have a high fever.

  • You're experiencing heat exhaustion.

  • You're pregnant.

  • You have diabetes.

  • You've injured yourself during the seizure.

If you experience a seizure for the first time, seek medical advice.

Seek medical advice in these circumstances:

  • If you think you or your child is having seizures

  • When the number or severity of seizures increases significantly without explanation

  • When new signs or symptoms of seizures appear

Causes Temporal lobe seizure(TLE)

Of all styles of epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy is most commonplace. It influences approximately 60 percent of anybody with epilepsy and can arise at any age. There are many potential reasons, and regularly the precise motive is unknown.

Often, the reason for temporal lobe seizures remains unknown. However, they can be a end result of a number of of things, along with:

  • Traumatic brain injury

  • Infections, such as encephalitis or meningitis, or a history of such infections

  • A technique that causes scarring (gliosis) in part of the temporal lobe called the hippocampus

  • Blood vessel malformations in the brain

  • Stroke

  • Brain tumors

  • Genetic syndromes

During everyday waking and dozing, your brain cells produce varying electric interest. If the electric hobby in lots of mind cells becomes abnormally synchronized, a convulsion or seizure may arise.

If this occurs in only one place of the brain, the end result is a focal seizure. A temporal lobe seizure is a focal seizure that originates in one of the temporal lobes.

Risk factors Temporal lobe seizure(TLE)

The most common danger for temporal lobe epilepsy is having had a seizure, mainly an unusually lengthy-lasting seizure, with a fever sooner or later in existence. Other commonplace hazard factors for temporal lobe epilepsy.

Factors which could lead to an increased chance of developing temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) consist of:

  • Having an extended seizure (status epilepticus) or a seizure that outcomes from a high fever (febrile seizure). Some 66% of human beings who've TLE have a history of febrile seizures, which normally arise in youth. However, the general public who have febrile seizures don’t develop TLE.

  • Having structural troubles on your temporal lobe, including a tumor or mind malformation.

  • Having a mind harm that passed off early in existence, which include head trauma with lack of recognition, brain infections (together with meningitis) or beginning injury for your mind.

Complications Temporal lobe Seizure

Over time, repeated temporal lobe seizures can motivate a part of the brain it's responsible for gaining knowledge of and memory (hippocampus) to shrink. Brain cell loss in this location may additionally cause memory problems.

Epilepsy can be lifestyles-threatening in more than one situations:

  • Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). About 1 in 1,000 human beings with epilepsy die every year from SUDEP. The cause isn’t recognised, however having plenty of seizures which are unable to be controlled will increase the risk. It’s more common in adults than children.

  • Status epilepticus. This is a protracted-lasting (5 mins as much as 30 minutes) seizure or seizures that arise near together without healing between them. It’s considered a scientific emergency. Call 911 or get instant hospital therapy if this happens.

Prevention Temporal lobe Seizure

No medications or treatments can save you from epilepsy. However, because some seizures expand from other fitness activities — as an instance, due to brain accidents, heart assaults and strokes — you could take some precautions to lessen your risk of developing seizures.

  • To lower your risk of traumatic brain injury (from blows in your head), constantly put on your seatbelt when using and force “defensively”; wear a helmet while biking; clean your flooring of clutter and energy cords to prevent falls and live off ladders.

  • To lower your risk of stroke, Consume a healthy eating regimen (including the Mediterranean weight loss plan), preserve a healthy weight, workout frequently and don’t smoke.

How do you get rid of temporal lobe seizures?

Temporal lobe seizures are a type of seizure associated with epilepsy that can cause a variety of symptoms Although it is not possible to eliminate temporal lobe seizures completely there are several ways to reduce the number and severity of temporal lobe seizures These include taking medications such as benzodiazepines valproic acid and barbiturates; performing exercises designed to alleviate the risk factors for temporal lobe seizures; and undergoing neurosurgery if all other measures fail to reduce the frequency of temporal lobe seizures.

Although the symptoms of temporal lobe seizures can vary from person to person the following are common signs: Loss of awareness or consciousness Generalized muscle twitching spasms or convulsions Behavioral changes such as confusion and agitation Uncontrollable crying or moaning Staring or a loss of eye contact Tearing of the eyes Facial grimacing or other unusual facial expressions.

How do you improve temporal lobe?

The temporal lobes are a pair of cerebral structures located on the sides of the brain just above the ears These lobes are involved in hearing memory and language The temporal lobes play an important role in making decisions and recognizing faces Both temporal lobes are associated with functions such as memory speech and emotion They also help control visual-spatial perception and organization as well as auditory processing.

Diagnosis Temporal lobe seizure(TLE)

A doctor can diagnose temporal lobe seizures from a detailed description of how the seizures came about. It’s frequently cautioned that a third-birthday party witness describe the seizures, as they may be better capable of taking into account what passed off.

The trendy radiological technique used to diagnose temporal lobe epilepsy is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is accomplished at the mind. Doctors search for feature brain abnormalities related to temporal lobe epilepsy.

Doctors may even carry out an electroencephalogram (EEG), a test used to measure the brain’s electrical pastime. Sharp waves visible in an EEG in the correct region are usually indicative of temporal lobe epilepsy. Doctors every now and then report seizures in a video EEG monitor, generally when figuring out whether or not surgical treatment would be useful in treating localized seizures.

After a seizure, your health practitioner will thoroughly assess your signs and clinical records. Your health practitioner may order numerous checks to determine the motive of your seizure and evaluate how in all likelihood it's miles that you'll have another one.

Tests may include:

  • Neurological exam. Your health practitioner may additionally check your behavior, motor capabilities and mental features to decide if you have trouble together with your brain and anxious system.

  • Blood tests. Your health practitioner may also take a blood sample to test for signs and symptoms of infections, genetic conditions, blood sugar ranges or electrolyte imbalances.

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG). Electrodes connected to your scalp record the electrical activity of your mind, which suggests up as wavy traces on an EEG recording. The EEG may also reveal a sample that tells docs whether a seizure is probable to arise again, or help rule out different conditions that mimic epilepsy.

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan makes use of X-rays to acquire pass-sectional photos of your brain. CT scans can monitor abnormalities on your brain that would cause a seizure, together with tumors, bleeding and cysts.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI makes use of effective magnets and radio waves to create a detailed view of your brain. Your doctor may be capable of coming across lesions or abnormalities for your mind that could lead to seizures.

  • Positron emission tomography (PET). PET scans use a small quantity of low-dose radioactive fabric that is injected right into a vein to help visualize energetic areas of the brain and locate abnormalities.

  • Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). A SPECT take a look at makes use of a small amount of low-dose radioactive material it's injected right into a vein to create an in depth, 3-D map of the blood flow interest in your brain that happens for the duration of a seizure. Doctors may additionally behave as a form of a SPECT. Take a look at a subtraction called SPECT coregistered to magnetic resonance imaging (SISCOM), which may additionally provide even extra-special results.

Treatment Temporal lobe seizure(TLE)

Many people with temporal lobe epilepsy reap complete seizure manipulation with anti-seizure capsules. But nearly a third of people might not respond to drug therapy.

Uncontrolled seizures may also motivate a number of troubles. For instance, humans often file issues with memory, socialization, and a fear of leaving their home. They can also restrict their day by day activities, which leads to a lower first-class lifestyle.

Not all sundry who have one seizure may have some other one. Because a seizure can be an isolated incident, your medical doctor may not decide to start treatment until you've had multiple.

The top-quality purpose in seizure remedy is to find the first-class viable therapy to forestall seizures, with the fewest facet effects.


Many medications are to be had to treat temporal lobe seizures. However, many people don't obtain seizure control with medicinal drugs on their own, and facet consequences, inclusive of fatigue, weight gain and dizziness, are commonplace.

Discuss viable aspect effects with your health practitioner when determining approximately remedy alternatives. Also ask what impact your seizure medications and other medicinal drugs you're taking, inclusive of oral contraceptives, may have on each other.

Surgical or other procedures

When anti-seizure medications aren't effective, other treatments may be an option:

  • Surgery. The purpose of surgical procedure is to stop seizures from happening. This is often accomplished through a conventional surgical procedure, where surgeons function to take away the area of the brain wherein seizures start. In certain humans, surgeons can be capable of using MRI-guided laser therapy as a much less invasive manner to wreck the location of damaged tissue that causes seizures.
    Surgery works nice for people who've seizures that always originate within the equal region in their brains. Surgery normally isn't an alternative if your seizures come from more than one place of the mind, your seizure attention can not be identified or your seizures come from a region of the brain that performs critical functions.

  • Vagus nerve stimulation. A tool implanted under the pores and skin of your chest stimulates the vagus nerve for your neck, sending indicators on your brain that inhibit seizures. With vagus nerve stimulation, you could nevertheless need to take medicine, however you may be able to decrease the dose.

  • Responsive neurostimulation. During responsive neurostimulation, a device implanted at the surface of your mind or inside mind tissue can detect seizure pastime and deliver an electrical stimulation to the detected region to prevent the seizure.

  • Dietary therapy. Following a weight-reduction plan that is excessive in fat and low in carbohydrates, known as a ketogenic food regimen, can improve seizure control. Variations on an excessive-fats, low-carbohydrate weight-reduction plan, inclusive of the low glycemic index and modified Atkins diets, may be less effective. However, they aren't as restrictive because of the ketogenic diet and might offer some advantages.

Pregnancy and seizures

Women who've had preceding seizures typically are able to have wholesome pregnancies. Birth defects associated with positive medicinal drugs can every so often occur.

In specific, valproic acid (Depakene) — one viable medicine for generalized seizures — has been associated with cognitive deficits and neural tube defects, which include spina bifida. The American Academy of Neurology recommends that girls keep away from using valproic acid during pregnancy because of dangers to the baby.

Discuss these risks with your physician. Because of the danger of birth defects, and due to the fact being pregnant can alter medicine stages, preconception planning is mainly critical for women who have had seizures.

In some cases, it could be suitable to trade the dose of seizure remedy earlier than or throughout being pregnant. Medications may be switched in uncommon instances.

Contraception and anti-seizure medications

It's additionally crucial to know that some anti-seizure medicines can alter the effectiveness of oral contraceptives — a shape of start control — and some oral contraceptives can accelerate the absorption of seizure medicines. If birth control is a high priority, test with your doctor to assess whether or not your medication interacts together with your oral contraceptive, and if other styles of contraception want to be considered.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Here are some steps you can take to help with seizure control:

  • Take medication correctly. Don't regulate the dosage before talking to your doctor. If you sense your remedy should be modified, discuss it with your medical doctor.

  • Get enough sleep. Lack of sleep can trigger seizures. Be positive to get ok rest every night time.

  • Wear a medical alert bracelet. This will assist emergency employees understand a way to treat you efficiently when you have another seizure.

  • Ask your doctor about driving restrictions. Someone with a seizure disorder must be seizure-unfastened for affordable lengths of time (periods range from state to state) earlier than being able to drive.

Personal safety

Seizures do not commonly result in severe injury, but if you have recurrent seizures, damage is a possibility. These steps can help you avoid harm in the course of a seizure:

  • Take care near water. Don't swim alone or relax in a boat without someone nearby.

  • Wear a helmet for protection during activities such as bike riding or sports participation.

  • Take showers instead of baths, unless someone is near you.

  • Modify your furnishings. Pad sharp corners, purchase fixtures with rounded edges and select chairs which have fingers to preserve you from falling off the chair. Consider carpet with thick padding to shield you in case you do fall.

  • Display seizure first-aid tips In a place wherein human beings can easily see them. Include any critical telephone numbers there, too.

Seizure first aid

It's beneficial to realize what to do if you witness a person having a seizure. If you are prone to having seizures within the destiny, skip these facts alongside a circle of relatives, friends and co-workers in order that they realize what to do if you have a seizure.

To help someone during a seizure:

  • Carefully roll the person onto one side

  • Place something soft under his or her head

  • Loosen tight neckwear

  • Avoid putting your fingers or other objects in the person's mouth

  • Don't try to restrain someone having a seizure

  • Clear away dangerous objects, if the person is moving

  • Stay with the person until medical personnel arrive

  • Observe the person closely so that you can provide details on what happened

  • Time the seizure

  • Stay calm

Coping and support

Even after they may be beneath management, seizures can have an effect on your lifestyles. Temporal lobe seizures may give even greater of a coping undertaking because human beings won't apprehend the uncommon conduct as a seizure. Children may additionally get teased or be embarrassed by using their condition, and residing with the regular risk of another seizure may frustrate children and adults.

At home

Your family can provide tons-needed assistance. Tell them what you recognize about your seizure sickness. Let them know they are able to ask you questions, and be open to conversations approximately their concerns. Help them understand your condition with the aid of sharing any academic materials or other sources that your medical doctor has given you.

At work

Meet along with your manager and communicate approximately your seizure sickness and the way it impacts you. Discuss what you need out of your manager or co-employees if a seizure takes place at the same time as at paintings. Consider talking together with your co-workers about seizure issues — you may widen your support gadget and bring about attractiveness and knowledge.

You're not alone

Remember, you don't need to pass it by yourself. Reach out to a circle of relatives and pals. Ask your medical doctor approximately nearby assist groups or be part of an internet assist network. Don't be afraid to ask for assistance. Having a strong support system is important to residing with any clinical circumstance.

  1. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves

Preparing for your appointment

In a few cases, seizures need instant medical interest, and there's no longer constant time to put it together for an appointment.

In other cases, your first appointment to evaluate a seizure can be along with your family physician or a general practitioner. Or you will be cited as a consultant, such as a doctor skilled in brain and fearful system situations (neurologist) or a neurologist trained in epilepsy (epileptologist).

To prepare for your appointment, recall what you can do to get prepared and apprehend what to anticipate out of your medical doctor.

What you can do

  • Record information about the seizure. Include the time, vicinity, symptoms you experienced and the way lengthy it lasted, in case you know these info. Seek entry from anybody who may additionally have visible seizure, together with a family member, friend or co-worker, so that you can file information you could no longer realize.

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you are making the appointment, ask if there is something you need to do in advance to be prepared for any scientific assessments or exams.

  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking, including dosages.

  • Take a family member or friend along, To help you remember all of the records supplied for the duration of an appointment. Also, due to the fact you could not be aware about the whole thing that occurs while you're having a seizure, your health practitioner may additionally need to invite questions of someone who became a witness.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor. Preparing a listing of questions will assist you in making the maximum amount of time along with your medical doctor.

For seizures, some primary inquiries to ask your physician consist of:

  • What do you think caused my seizure?

  • Do I need to have any tests done?

  • What treatment approach do you recommend?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting?

  • How likely is it that I might have another seizure?

  • How can I make sure that I don't hurt myself if I have another seizure?

  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions which you've organized to invite your doctor, do not hesitate to ask questions at some point of your appointment at any time when you don't understand something.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions:

  • Can you describe your seizure episode?

  • Where were you and what happened right before it started?

  • Was anyone there to witness what happened?

  • What do you remember feeling just before the seizure? What about right after the seizure?

  • What symptoms did you experience?

  • How long did the seizure last?

  • Have you ever had a seizure or other neurological problem in the past?

  • Do you have any family members who have been diagnosed with a seizure disorder or epilepsy?

  • Have you recently traveled outside the country?

General summary

  1. symptoms The temporal lobes also known as the hippocampal lobes are a pair of structures that span each side of the brain's temporal (near) occipital (back of the head) junction Underneath the temples and above the ears they are a part of the neocortex and make up one-third of the brain's total surface area The temporal lobe is the second biggest part of the brain The temporal lobes control hearing and language comprehension memory storage and recall body movement emotions and personality traits They also help process sensory information from the body for recognition and awareness During seizures in this area there may be sudden jerking movements of one or both arms and legs on one side.
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