Zika Virus : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

What Is Zika Virus?

Zika virus is comparable to infectious disease fever, infectious disease and West Nile virus. Carried by infected yellow-fever mosquito mosquitoes, Zika is essentially transmitted through bites, however can even occur through intrauterine infection.

If a girl is bitten by an infected mosquito and becomes infected, Zika can cross into the placenta and have an effect on the fetus. whereas anyone can contract Zika, pregnant women are the foremost in danger thanks to the potential for craniate abnormality and alternative neurological abnormalities. Sexual transmission of this virus can occur. Transmission has been reportable from infected men and girls to their sexual partners. The virus will be transmitted through anal, oral or duct sex.

What Is Zika Virus?
Zika Virus

Symptoms of this virus are usually mild, with fever, rash and joint pain present. The majority who develop the virus don't have symptoms.The Zika virus (ZIKV) may be a mosquito-borne disease, transmitted by bites from some species of arthropod genus mosquito, notably Aedes aegypti. These mosquitoes bite within the day, particularly around dawn and dusk. In Australia, the species that may carry Zika virus are solely found in components of northern Australian state; but no cases of Zika infection non heritable in Queensland are identified.

There are usually no symptoms, however in around one fifth of cases the infection will cause an unhealthiness with fever, rash, conjunctivitis, severe headache and muscle pain. Unhealthiness from Zika is sometimes not severe and doesn't usually need hospitalization.

Outbreaks of Zika virus have antecedently been reportable in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and therefore the Pacific Islands. All proverbial cases of Zika virus in Australia are in travelers strolling back from overseas.

There's no specific treatment or immunogen presently available. The simplest kind of interference is avoiding being bitten by mosquitoes if you are in a country suffering from Zika virus.

Recent outbreaks in Central and South America, notably Brazil, have raised issues that infection with Zika virus in pregnant ladies may result in birth defects, together with a heavy condition called abnormality. intensive studies have currently led to the scientific accord that Zika infection throughout physiological conditions will cause microcephaly in fetuses.

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Medical terms

  • Zika is found in many parts of the world. The mosquito that carries it is found everywhere.
  • Visit the CDC's website about Zika virus cases. Keep track of the number of cases so you don't become worried.
  • The Zika virus is most often spread to people through mosquito bites. People who are infected with the Zika virus may have no symptoms at all or mild fever, rash, and muscle pain. In rare cases, the Zika virus can cause brain damage. Zika virus can cause complications such as Guillain-Barre syndrome even in people who never experience symptoms of infection. Zika virus is also called Zika fever or Zika virus disease.
  • Pregnant women who are infected with Zika virus have a higher risk of miscarriage. The Zika virus also increases the risk of serious birth defects, including a potentially fatal brain condition called microcephaly.

There is a vaccine being developed for the Zika virus. The best way to avoid infection right now is to avoid mosquito bites and reduce mosquito habitats.Zika virus can last in semen longer than previously thought New research published in the journal Cell Reports found that Zika can survive in semen for at least six months after a man is infected with the virus The study also suggests that Zika may be able to spread through the sperm of men who are not showing any symptoms of infection.

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Symptoms Zika Virus

The incubation length (the time from exposure to signs) of Zika virus disorder is predicted to be three–14 days. The majority of people infected with Zika virus do not expand signs and symptoms. Symptoms are generally moderate inclusive of fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache, and generally last for two–7 days.

Zika is usually not harmful to most people. About 4 out of 5 people who are infected with Zika have no signs or symptoms. Occasionally, people may experience mild symptoms after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The symptoms usually last about a week, and most people eventually recover completely.

Zika virus symptoms most commonly include:

  • Mild fever

  • Rash

  • If you have joint pain in your hands or feet, it might be because of a problem with your muscles.

  • Red eyes (conjunctivitis)

Other signs and symptoms may include:

  • Muscle pain

  • Headache

  • Eye pain

  • You might be feeling fatigued or uncomfortable.

  • Abdominal pain

When to see a doctor

If you think you may have the Zika virus, see your doctor. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has blood tests to detect the Zika virus and other viruses that can be spread through contact with saliva or blood. Mosquitoes.

If you are pregnant and have recently traveled to an area where the Zika virus is common, ask your doctor whether you should be tested even if you do not have symptoms.

Causes Zika Virus

Zika is most often spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. These mosquitoes can be found in many parts of the world, and include two species of mosquitoes that are common.

When a mosquito bites someone who is already infected with the Zika virus, the virus enters the mosquito. This then allows the virus to be transferred to another person when that person is bitten. This can cause an infection.

Pregnant women can also spread the Zika virus to their unborn children.

The virus can be spread from one person to another through sexual contact, through blood transfusion or organ donation.

Risk factors Zika Virus

There are some things that put you at greater risk of catching the Zika virus, including:

  • Avoid traveling to countries where there have been outbreaks of the flu. Zika is a virus that is spread by mosquitoes. Areas that are warm and humid, such as many of the Pacific Islands, Central and South America, and some Caribbean islands, increase your risk of exposure to Zika. Because mosquitoes that spread Zika live in these areas, you are at a higher risk of getting the virus if you travel to one of these areas. It is likely that outbreaks of this disease will continue to spread to new regions.
    Most cases of Zika virus infection in the U.S. have been reported in people who traveled to other areas. But the mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus do live here in some parts of the U.S., too. Local transmission has been reported in Florida, Texas, and in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The islands of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean are located in the Western Hemisphere.

  • Having unprotected sex. Zika virus can be spread from one person to another through sex. Having unprotected sex can increase the risk of Zika virus infection for up to three months after travel. For people who are pregnant, this means that their sex partners who have recently been in or traveled to an area where Zika virus is common should use protection. Use a condom during sexual activity or abstain from sexual activity until the baby is born if you are pregnant or traveling with your partner who is pregnant. All other couples can reduce their risk of sexual transmission by using a condom or abstaining from sexual activity for up to three months after travel.

Complications Zika Virus

Zika viral infection throughout physiological conditions may be a reason behind abnormal conditions and different non inheritable abnormalities within the developing craniate and newborn. Zika infection in pregnancy also ends up in pregnancy complications like fetal loss, stillbirth, and preterm birth.  

Zika virus infection is additionally a trigger of Guillain-Barré syndrome, pathology and myelitis, significantly in adults and older youngsters.

analysis is currently to research the consequences of Zika virus infection on pregnancy outcomes, methods for interference and control, and effects of infection on other medical specialty disorders in children and adults.

Women who are infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy have a higher risk of miscarriage, preterm birth and stillbirth. The Zika virus infection during pregnancy also increases the risk of developing serious birth defects in infants, including congenital Zika syndrome (a set of conditions that can occur in newborns).

  • Microcephaly is a condition in which the brain and head are smaller than normal. The skull may have partly collapsed.

  • Brain damage and reduced brain tissue

  • Eye damage

  • Joint problems, including limited motion

  • Postpartum muscle tone is too high, which can cause reduced movement.

Zika virus may cause brain or nervous system complications even in people who never experience symptoms of the virus.

What happens if Zika is left untreated?

Zika symptoms usually resolve in about a week so many people don’t realize they have it But the biggest risk is to pregnant women whose babies can develop serious birth defects if they contract the virus while still in the womb The link between Zika and microcephaly was first reported in Brazil last year and since then scientists have uncovered more evidence of a connection While most infected people never get sick enough to go to the hospital some experience a mild illness with fever rash joint pain and red eyes Others may have no symptoms at all.

Where can the Zika virus be found in the human body?

Where can the Zika virus be found in the human body? The Zika virus is mainly transmitted by two species of mosquito: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus You can also get it through sexual contact with an infected person The main symptoms are fever rash joint pain and conjunctivitis (red eyes) The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting from several days to a week There's no vaccine or specific treatment.

What part of the body does Zika affect?

Zika virus is mainly spread by the bite of an infected mosquito The most common symptoms of Zika are fever rash joint pain or conjunctivitis (red eyes) The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital and they very rarely die of Zika For this reason many people might not realize they have been infected.

Prevention Zika Virus

Protection against dipterous insect bites throughout the day and early evening may be a key to stopping Zika virus infection. Special attention ought to tend to the interference of mosquito bites among pregnant ladies, women of fruitful age, and young kids.

Personal protection measures embrace sporting article of clothing (preferably light-coloured) that covers the maximum amount of the body as possible; victimization physical barriers akin to window screens and closed doors and windows; and applying repellent to skin or clothing that contains DEET, IR3535 or picaridin per the merchandise label instructions.

Young children and pregnant women should sleep beneath dipterous insect nets if sleeping throughout the day or early evening.  Travelers and people living in affected areas ought to take identical basic precautions represented higher than to safeguard themselves from mosquito bites.

genus Aedes mosquitoes breed in little collections of water around homes, schools, and work sites. It's necessary to eliminate these mosquito breeding sites, including: covering water storage containers, removing standing water in flower pots, and improving trash and used tires. Community initiatives are essential to support government and public health programs to scale back mosquito breeding sites.  Health authorities might also advise use of larvicides and pesticides to scale back dipterous insect populations and malady spread.

There is no vaccine to protect against the Zika virus. However, you can take steps to reduce your risk of exposure to the virus.

These tips may help lower your risk of Zika virus infection if you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant:

  • Plan travel carefully.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all pregnant women avoid traveling to areas where an outbreak of the Zika virus is occurring.
    talk to your doctor about whether you or your partner's upcoming travel plans increase the risk of Zika virus infection. If you decide to try to conceive, your doctor may suggest you wait two to three months after your travel has ended.

  • Practice safe sex.If you live in or have traveled to an area where there is an outbreak of the Zika virus, the CDC recommends not having sex during pregnancy or using a condom during all sexual activity.

If you are living in or traveling to an area where the Zika virus is known to be prevalent, take steps to reduce your risk of mosquito bites:

  • Stay in a cool, air-conditioned or screened area.Mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus are most active during the day, but they can also bite at night. So if you're going outside, you might want to sleep under a mosquito bed net.

  • Wear protective clothing.When you enter an area where mosquitoes are common, wear a long-sleeved shirt, pants, and socks.

  • Use insect repellent. You can apply permethrin to your clothing, shoes, camping gear, and bed netting. You can also buy clothing that has been treated with permethrin. For your skin, use a repellent that contains DEET (diethyl thiophosphate) or one of the other active ingredients registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and known to be effective against mosquitoes. These repellents are effective against mosquitoes. When used as directed, they are safe and effective for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

  • Reduce mosquito habitat.Mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus live in and around houses. They usually breed in standing water that has collected in containers such as animal dishes, flower pots, and used automobile tires. To help lower mosquito populations, empty any sources of standing water at least once a week.

The Zika virus and blood donation

To prevent the Zika virus from spreading through blood transfusion, all blood donations in the United States and its territories are screened for the virus. If you donate blood, make sure your donation center is aware of your current health condition. Zika is not a disease you can catch from other people, so you do not need to worry about getting it. However, if you recently traveled to an area where Zika is common, your local blood donation center may recommend that you wait four weeks before donating blood.

Diagnosis Zika Virus

Zika is found in many places around the world.

Visit the CDC's Zika virus website to stay up to date on case numbers.

Your doctor will want to know about your medical history and recent travel. Be sure to explain all of your international trips, including the countries you have visited and when the trips took place. You should also mention any mosquito-related activities, such as traveling to areas where mosquitoes are common.

If your doctor suspects that you may have Zika virus, he or she may recommend a blood or urine test to confirm the diagnosis. The blood or urine samples can also be used to test for other similar mosquito-borne diseases.

If you are pregnant and you do not have symptoms of Zika virus infection, but you or your partner have recently traveled to an area with active Zika virus transmission, ask your doctor if you need to be tested.

If you are pregnant and at risk of Zika virus, your doctor may also recommend one of the following:

  • Ultrasounds are used to look for problems with the baby's brain.

  • A test called amniocentesis is used to remove a sample of amniotic fluid for testing for the Zika virus.

Zika virus infection is diagnosed through:

  • medical history, including a travel history to look for any exposure in a country with active Zika transmission in the two weeks prior to illness

  • physical examination, to look for evidence of the infection

  • blood and other laboratory tests.

Treatment Zika Virus

There is no specific treatment for Zika virus infection. To relieve symptoms, get plenty of rest and drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. The OTC medication acetaminophen (Tylenol others) may help relieve joint pain and fever.

If you're feeling sick after traveling to an area where mosquito-borne illnesses are common, see your doctor. Don't take ibuprofen (Advil Motrin IB others), naproxen sodium (Aleve), or other over-the-counter medications that can make the condition worse. Don't take aspirin if your doctor hasn't ruled out the possibility you have dengue fever. Taking aspirin can increase your risk of serious complications from dengue fever.

Zika virus sickness is typically comparatively mild. Currently, there's no cure or specific treatment for Zika virus. Treatment aims to ease symptoms and cut back the danger of complications whereas the person recovers. If you have visited a village with active Zika virus transmission and have symptoms that would be caused by Zika infection, you ought to obtain medical aid and advice, particularly as there can be alternative causes of your symptoms.

People diagnosed with Zika virus infection should: 

  • get plenty of rest

  • drink enough fluids

  • treat pain and fever with common medicines such as paracetamol.

don't take anodyne or other non-steroidal medication medicine unless suggested by your doctor, as these can be related to a risk of harm if there's an infectious disease infection present.

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Preparing for your appointment

You might start by seeing your primary care doctor. But you might be referred to a doctor who specializes in infectious diseases or travel medicine if you have a serious illness.

Prepare for your appointment by reviewing information beforehand. The appointment will likely be brief, so it's important to be well-prepared. Expect to discuss a lot of important topics with your doctor.

What you can do

Please write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to why you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information.When you travel internationally, list the dates and countries you visited and the medications you took. Include a record of your vaccinations, including any pre-travel vaccinations.

  • Make a list of all your medications.Make sure to include any vitamins and supplements you take on a regular basis.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.Making a list of questions can help you get the most out of your doctor's appointment. List the questions that are most important to you in order of importance, in case time runs out.

Some basic questions to ask your doctor if you are concerned about Zika virus infection include:

  • What are the most likely reasons for my symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What treatments are available?

  • How long will it take for the medicine to work?

  • Can this illness have long-term effects?

  • Can you print out any brochures or other printed material for me to take home? What websites do you think I should visit?

What to expect from your doctor

When you go to your doctor, you might be asked questions such as:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Are you pregnant? Do you use contraception?

  • Have your symptoms been present for a long time or just a few times?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What have you tried so far to relieve your symptoms?

  • Where have you been in the past month?

  • Are you getting sick from mosquitoes while traveling?

  • Are you feeling unwell lately?

General summary

  1. and causu People in all age groups can be affected by Zika The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash joint pain and conjunctivitis (red eyes) Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital and they very rarely die of Zika.

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